Evliya Efendi's 17th Century Travels (continued)

Bapopik at AOL.COM Bapopik at AOL.COM
Sun Jun 2 20:36:04 UTC 2002

   Continuing from where I left off.

Pg. 121:  They bake for noby else but the Janissaries, unless it be for the
poor, to whom they distribute black loaves of bread called (fodula).

Pg. 122:  The Cracknel-bakers (chorekjian),* two hundred shops and as many
*_Chorek_ is a kind of butter-cake covered with sesamum.

Pg. 122:  The Pastry-cooks (Borekjian),* two hundred shops and men.
*_Borek_ is a kind of pastry or pie.

Pg. 122:  The Bakers of the paste, called Kah,...
The Bakers of the paste, called Ghurabieh,...
The Bakers of the bread, called Semid,...
The Bakers of Kataif, a sort of excellent macaroni made of almonds with
sugar, one hundred men, with fifty shops.
The Bakers of the kind of paste, called Sehrieh,...
The Bakers of the fritters, called Lokma,...
The Bakers of the sweet cakes, called Gozelmeh,...

Pg. 123:  In the shops of the Lokmaji and Gozlemehji, a Jew is appointed as
inspector, because Jews only eat cakes and fritters baked in oil, and Moslems
those baked in butter.

Pg. 137:  Coffee-houses are houses of confusion.  Coffee has been by law
declared illicit in the great collections of fetwas, called Bezazieh and
Tartar-khanieh, wherein every thing that is burnt is declared to be illegal
food; this is also the case with burnt bread.  Sherbet, milk, tea, badian,
salep, and almond-cream are all more wholesome than coffee.

Pg. 143:  The Curd-merchants (Yoghurdjian). ...
The Merchants of the cheese called Telmeh Penir.

Pg. 148:  The Merchants of salted beef (Jelb-keshan Pasdirmajian) are six
hundred, and no less wealthy merchants than the former.  The greatest part of
them are Infidels of Moldavia and Wallachia.  Their stands, called Saya and
Ekrek, have been mentioned before.  They bring, about the day of Kassem (S.
Demetrius), three hundred thousand oxen for the provision of Constantinople,
of which they make Pasdirma (salted beef).
(Pastrami?--ed.) (...)
   The Merchants of dried salted beef (Tajirani Pasdirma) four hundred menb,
with an hundred shops.  THeir shops are outside of the Wooden gate at Galata
and Top-khanah and everywhere else.  They sell dried salted beef, and adorn
their shops with hams and slices of the such kinds of meats, and cry to the
beholders, "Take Pasdirma."

Pg. 149:  The Prophet himself came into  his shop at Mecca to eat of the dish
called heriseh, which is mentioned in the tradition by the word of the
Prophet.  "Heriseh is the Lord of dishes."

Pg. 150:  Vinegar is praised in the tradition of the Prophet: if there is no
vinegar in a house it is said, that there is no blessing either.

Pg. 150:  The adage says, _El-mumen holwi wel fassek turshi_, "The faithful
are  sweet and the wicked sour," and again, _Habb el-holwi min el-iman_, "The
love of sweetmeats proceeds from Faith."

Pg. 151:  Their first patron is Adam, who cooked the soup called
Baba-chorbassi, the father's soup; the second Abraham; the third the Prophet,
who on the day of the conquest of Mecca cooked himself soup and the dish
called Heriseh, serving at the same time all the Moslims.

Pg. 152:  The Cooks of Saffrom Pilaw (erdejian) are thirty men, with fifteen
shops. ...
   The Roasting Cooks (Burganjian)...
   The Stewers (Yakhnjian), who sell Yakhni (stewed meat). ...
   The Farcers (Dolmajian) are one hundred and fifty men, with fifty shops.
Their patron saint is Sheab Rumi, bred up by Selman, and buried at
Kaissarieh, near Amr-ul-kais, the poet.  They sell all kinds of dolmas
(long-shaped pumpkins filled with meat, or minced meat simply wrapped up in
leaves) as, Kabak-dolma, Yaprak-dolma, Mumbar-dolma, Soghan-dolma,
(This translation occurs about 150 years later, but it would still be another
50 years before OED would record "dolma"!--ed.)

Pg. 153:  The Almond-cream-makers (Paludehjian).  Their patron was bred up by
Selman.  They pass selling their creams and crying their sweet cakes
(rahat-lokum or rahat-ul-kholkum), which they say sharpens the sight.
(See prior posts for "Turkish Delight"--ed.)

Pg. 153:  The Saladmakers (Salotajian) are three hundred men, all Greeks,
with two hundred shops.  Their patron is not known to me; they ornament their
shops and cry "Salad well oiled."
   The Spinach merchants (Ispanakjian)...
   The Sausage-makers (Sujukjian) are thirty men, with ten shops.  Their
patron is not known.  They adorn their shops with well-seasoned sausages of
   The Merchants of Khoshab (a kind of sherbet), are seven hundred men, with
five hundred shops.

Pg. 154:  The Sherbet-merchants (Sherbetjian)...
   The Cryers of warm almond-cream (Paludeh)...
   The Almond-paste makers (Badamli Kufterjian)...

Pg. 155:  These paste-makers put nuts and almonds on a string, which they
pass through almond jelly (paludeh), and make a kind of paste as delicious as
that made at Aintab.  They adorn their shops with all kinds of pastes
(kufter), and pass clad in armour. ...
   The Salep-merchants (Th'lebjian)...
   The Merchants of warm milk (Sudjian sukhanan)...
   The Sellers of the cream, called Mohallebi (Mohallebijian) have no shops,
but like the former sell mohallebi in cans heated by fire.  Mohalleb is an
herb which grows on the highest alps, and which ground and boiled with sugar
and pure milk is sold as cream.  It is a fortifying purgative of bile and
phlegm, and is a delicious sherbet.
(Again, how could OED not have entered something old?  Is it an infidel word
they just didn't like?  Don't OED editors ever visit Turkey??--ed.) ...
   The Syrup-makers (Ighdajian)...
   The Merchants of the syrup Ighda...

Pg. 156:  The Grape-pressers (Degirmenjiani uzum)...
   The SNow and Ice merchants (Karji) have an establishment near the
vegetable-market, where the chief of the Imperial ice-porters resides summer
and winter.  Three hundred boatmen under his direction are always on
excursions to the mountains of Katirli, Modania, and Olympus.  They embark
the snow, ice, and fresh water, from these mountains, and carry them to the
Imperial kitchen, to the confectio9nary, to the Harem, and to the houses of
the grand vezir and other great men.
(Ice cream?--ed.)

Pg. 157:  A great contest about precedency took place between the fish-cooks
and sugar-bakers (Halvaji). ...  To this reproach the Halvajis added the
praise of the Halva, grounded on the praise contained in the Koran of grapes
and honey.  It is of the Halva, that the Prophet (who was very fond of
sweetmeats) said, "The love of sweetmeats comes from the faith," and again,
"The faithful are sweet, the wicked sour."

Pg. 158:  They fit up their shops on litters with all kinds of Halvas and
robs, as white Halva, Moon Halva, Date Halva, Almond Halva, Ketan Halva, and
Ghazilar Halva, which brings the water into the mouth os the boys of the
town, who devour it with their eyes. ...
   The Merchants of the confections, called 'Akideh ('Akidehjian),...
   The Fishermen (Balikjian)...

Pg. 159:  There are three Dalians for catching the Xiphias, the fourth is for
catching the Kalkan-balighi (Rombo) at the place called the Black Stones, and
the fifth at Terkos for catching the fish Kurek-balighi.  The other Dalians
are established on both sides of the canal of Constantinople for catching the
Scombro, Palamedes, Kefal, Pachur, Palaria, Lufer, and many thousands sorts
of fish, the names of which are unknown to me; they give the tenth to the

Pg. 160:  The sort of oysters called lakoz are very strengthening; some eat
them roasted in the fire on iron pans.

Pg. 161:  The Pilaw, made with shell-fish and pure oil, called Midia-pilaw,
is also a delicious dish.  But above all, praise be to the Scombro, Nilufer,
and Rombo, because the man who eats them is fit to procreate his kind.
Praise also be to the Kefal-balighi (Cephalus), of which it may be said, "I
eat the fish to its head."

Pg. 161:  The proverb says, "Who makes the net shall not mend it, who spreads
it shall not end it, and who eats the fish shall not feel it."

Pg. 201:  They are clad from head to foot in cotton Muvahadis (a kind of
short dress) Ferrajis, drawers, turbans, clubs, hatchets, and muskets, all
made of cotton.

Pg. 202:  The Manufacturer of the caps, called Kelleposh, are two hundred and
five men, with one hundred and five shops.

Pg. 214:  The Coffee-merchants (Attaran Kahve) are five hundred men, with
three hundred shops.  ... I don't know their Sheikh, because coffee is a new
invention, but the drinking it comes from Sheikh Shadeli.

Pg. 227:  The Makers of the instrument Musikar (a wind instrument) are
fifteen men, with six shops. ...
   The Makers of the instrument Cheng (Chengjian) are ten men, with two
shops; it was invented by Pythagoras to solace Salomon.

Pg. 228:  Of the great Duduk (a kind of pipe). ...
   Of the Dilli Duduk. ...
   Of the Arabic Duduk. ...
   Of the crying Duduk. ...
   Of the Hungarian Duduk. ...
   Of the Tent Duduk. ...
   Of the Mizmar Duduk. ...
   Of the Danguid Duduk. ...
   Of the Tolum Duduk. ...
(As I said, this instrument is all over the Caucasus.  It's unthinkable that
there's no OED entry--ed.)
   Of the Chighaneh.
   Of the Chalpara.
   Of the Zummar.
   Of the Kefeji (a kind of half drum).

Pg. 245:  The Sellers of Buza (fermented liquor of barley) are one thousand
and five men, with three hundred shops.  The first who contrived to make Buza
was the Tatar Salssal, who was killed at Akkerman, by Malek-ushtur with an
arrow. ...  The excess of drinking it, brings on the gout and dropsy, and the
proverb says;--"That dogs are no friends to Buza-drinkers."  The reason is
that Buza drinkers being liable to the above-said diseases, always carry a
stick in the hand, which is no means of recommending themselves to the favour
of dogs.  The Buza-sellers are for the greater part Tatar gipsies.

Pg. 246:  Since I was born, I never tasted in my life, of fermented
beverages, or prohibited things, neither of tobacco, nor coffee, nor tea, nor
Badian, nor Kishrun (a beverage made of coffee-husks), nor Tha'leb (Salep),
nor Mahleb, nor Paysuna, mor Moduna, nor wine, nor Kirsh-water (Wishnab), nor
pomegranate wine, nor date-wine, nor mulberry-wine, nor melon-wine, nor
cocoa-nut-wine, nor Awishle-wine (?) nor Ipme-wine nor Assilma-wine (of
suspended grapes), nor Banan wine, nor Beduin-wine, nor triple-wine
(Muthelleth), nor Muscat-wine, nor Fishfish-wine, nor Nardenk-wine, nor
Bozun-wine, nor Heml-wine, nor Arak, nor Kulfesh (iced cooled wine), nor
Khorlika, nor Firma, nor Sudina, nor Pelonia, nor Khardalie (mustard), nor
Balsji, nor Tustaghasa, nor Diamond-water, nor Minjel-water, nor beer, nor
cinnamon-water, nor sulpher-water, nor goidurme, nor opium, nor Beresh, nor
Nushdar, nor Jewarish, nor Mokim, nor Bairampasha, nor Sheranie, nor Benjlik,
nor Kara-pehlivan, nor love-pills (Habbi-ushaki), nor Ferah, nor Kakunji
electuary, nor Jihan-bakhsh electuary, nor Kaissun electuary, nor Misrune
electuary, nor philosopher's electuary, nor Pirejan electuary, nor Dilkuswha
(Boy, I'm glad this guy wasn't on my tour--ed.)

Pg. 247:  The Sellers of Subaya (Subayajian)...
   The Mead (oxymel) makers (Balsujian)...
   The Arak-makers (Arakjian) are three hundred men, with one hundred shops.
It was first invented in Poland, where they extract spirits from all kinds of
plants.  The two kinds of brandies called Golefsin and Khorlika, are the most
noxious of all.  It is sin to get intoxicated with these kinds of Araks, but
to taste one or two drops is not illegal (Haram).
(Useful for the word "brandy"?--ed.)
   The Makers of the triple wine (Muthelletjian).  It was composed first by
Imam Zafer, and is made in the following way...

Pg. 1:  He invited me to be his companion according to the maxim, "First the
companion, then the road"...

Pg. 17:  _The Eatables, Beverage and Fruits of Brussa_.
   The first is white bread of the kind called Sumun, which is as good as the
best (Pg. 18--ed.) of Constaninople; tghen that sort of bread called Chakil,
like white roses; the Gozlemeh, the Kerdeh, a kind of roast mutton dressed
over a stove (Tennur).  The sheep which are very fat come from Mount Olympus.
 The white Halva of Brussa is also celebrated.
   The beverages are the delicious water of the head fountain Bunar-bashi and
seventeen other principal spring; excellent coffee from Yemen, very good
buza, the sherbet Khanedan-beg (smiling Prince), that of Tierli-oghli,
Karan-filli and Shujab.

Pg. 47:  ...every Friday a Zerde Pilaw, and Yakhni (stewed meat)...

Pg. 48:  _Eatable and Beverages_.
   The fish which are worthy of mention are Lorek-belighi, Kefal-balighi
(Cephalus), the Kalkan-balighi (Rhombus), which if eaten by women renders
them prolific; the fish called Kiziljeh-tekerbalik, with a red head and
delicious to taste; the gold fish, the Sgombro which is taken in the season
Erbain (forty days).  But the most precious of all...is the Khamsi-balighi...

Pg. 49:  If the head of this fish, Khamsi-balighi, pronounced Khapsi-balighi,
is burnt, serpents and other venomous reptiles are killed by the smoke.  The
people use it during forty days in all their dishes, to which it gives a
peculiar flavour, it is thus used with yakhni, roasts, pies, and baklava
(mixed pies), a  dish called pilegi is made of it in the following manner,
the fish is first cleaned, then cut into slices on which is laid parsley and
celery, then another layer of fish, the best oil is then poured on it, and it
is cooked over the fire for one hour, it thus becomes quite a luminous dish,
which may be said to illuminate those who eat it.

Pg. 100:  From trhe district of Kaghla comes a sort of corn called
Dardevedishi, of which most excellent bread is made, called Levasha, Kerde,
   The sherbets called Khardalie, Buldakli, are exported into Persia; a
pleasant white beverage.

Pg. 113:  They make two kinds of pies here, one of chicken and the other of a
sort of vegetable called Cheresh; white and excellebnt pastry (Chorek), white
bread called Kolaj, and meat roasted in stoves, &c.  Their beverages are
Sherbet or Ribbes, and excellent Buza.

Pg. 137:  The provisions consist of the white bread called Kerde, and Sumun,
cracknels, pastry, roasts, chicken pies, forty different kinds of pilaw with
spices, the Herisse and sweetmeat, Palude.

Pg. 138:  Every year on the tenth of the month Moharrem, being the feast of
A'ashura, all the population of the town assemble under tents in this large
place, and during three days and nights cook many thousand dishes of A'ashura
(a kind of hotch-potch), in remembrance of the martyrs of Kerbela; these
dishes are distributed with an abundance of sugar-sherbet...

(How could OED not include these terms?  How could OED not use hundreds of
cites from this book?  Copies are in many libraries and the book is 170 years
old!  And articles like that "Ode to OED" discuss trivialities like
"mindfuck"!  Amazing--ed.)

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