Ballerina, Escabeche, Pochero, Arroz a la Valencia (1770)
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A JOURNEY FROM LONDON TO GENOA, THROUGH ENGLAND, PORTUGAL, SPAIN AND FRANCE
by Joseph Baetti
The Third Edition
In Four Volumes
London: T. Davies
The items here are dated 1760. I have not checked the dates of the first
two editions. OED cites this as 1770, and uses it for 17 citations and one
antedate (gutturality). Amazing.
"Escabeche" has one hit in OED, in an entry for "caveach" that has a
single 1822 citation. There are over 11,000 Google "escabeche" hits. THE
OXFORD COMPANION TO FOOD mentions that "caveach" is used in 17th- and
18th-century English cookery books, and it's a word "which could be either a
noun or a verb. ... Indeed escabeche can be found, in past centuries and now,
lurking under other names in various countries and contexts." "Escabeyg" is
in a 14th-century Catalan treatise. A Philippines recipe for "escabeche" is
This should be fixed immediately..Merriam-Webster has no "escabeche"
Pg. 86: ...I breakfast _Anglice_ upon tea and toast, or bread and butter...
Pg. 91: ...on my arrival in _Portingal_ (as the sailors say) I am to pay the
captain twenty three thousand reis.
Pg. 215: ...a pigeon-pye, a roasted turkey, and a Barbary-tongue, together
with half a dozen bottles of the best wine.
Pg. 227: Being a meagre day we had an ample dish of salt-fish most favourily
dress'd after the manner of the country with garlick and _pimenta_, a large
sallad, and Dutch cheese with pears, apples, grapes, and figs, ten times more
than we could eat, good bread, and excellent wine.
Pg. 30: The _Trescone_ of the Tuscans, the _Furlana_ of the Venetians, the
_Corrente_ of the Monserrines, and the _Minuet_ or the _Amiable_ of the
French, are flat performances in comparison of that gallant one which I saw
executed before the balcony by that young man and a boy dressed in woman's
cloaths. But dances cannot be described by words, nor can I convey to you
any idea of the _Fandango_, but by telling you that every limb was in such a
motion as might be called with propriety _a regular and harmonious convulsion
of the whole body_.
Pg. 34: ...the female dancers of France go now to Italy, Germany, and
England to enamour _Signors_, _Minheers_, and _Mylords_.
Pg. 45: Lisbon-hams are in high reputation, and it has long (Pg. 46--ed.)
been decided by connoisseurs in epicureism that they are still superiour to
those of _Bayona_ and _Westphalia_.
Pg. 47: I must repeat it, that I have seen various dances from _Parenzo_ in
Istria to _Deily_ in England, (Pg. 48--ed.) but none of them is comparable to
what I saw here to-night. (...)
Both the _Fandango_ and the _Seguedilla_ are danced either at the sound of
the guittar alone, or the guittar accompanied by the voice...
Pg. 51: ...Fidalgoe's_ and _Cavallero's_ invited them to drink the health of
the _amables Baylarinas_ (_amiable she-dancers_) which they all did with the
noblest freedom and alacrity...
(OED has 1792 for "ballerina"--ed.)
Pg. 54: ...the _Posada_ (the _Inn_)...
Pg. 58: They were accordingly to fetch their _mantillas_; that is the _white
veils_ with which they cover their heads and the upper part of their bodies.
Pg. 85: As I was loitering before that _Meson_ waiting for supper, a parcel
of poor little girls came to look at the _Estrangero_.
(See past posts for "Meson--ed.)
Pg. 144: ...made my _Siesta_; that is, I slept an hour, because the weather
was insupportably hot.
Pg. 148: They don't like much garlick, onions, _pimenton_ (Spanish pepper)
_garvanzos_ (chick-peas) or _abadejo_ (salt-fish), so that I accustomed
myself to eat _salte befe_ with them, and could _dranke der bere_, which is
_un bino hecho de agua_; "_a wine made with water_."
Pg. 148: _Gavacho_ is an injurious appellation bestowed on the French by the
Spanish vulgar. I know of no satisfactory etymology of this word. The
Piedmontese call the Savoyards (and often the French) Gavass; and Gavass
means Derby-neck, or a man that has a Debry-neck.
Pg. 151: We saw a _Quinta_; that is, a country-house...
Pg. 157: ...you shall certainly have it _a manana_, "_to-morrow_."
(The revised OED has 1845 for "manana"--ed.)
Pg. 178: ...Seguedillas_ or _Coplas_...
(Fandango, Seguedilla, and Copla are on many pages--ed.)
Pg. 200: A rite used in this temple, which is called _Mozarob_ or
_Mozarabick_, originally instituted by a bishop of Seville called St.
(OED has 1788 for "Mozarab"--ed.)
Pg. 263: At the estallages and posadas you will find in general no other
victuals, but a mess of _garavanzos_ and _judias_ (_dry chick-pease_ and
_French beans_) boiled in oil and water, with a strong dose of pepper, and a
dish of _bacallao_ and _sardinas_ (_stock-fish_ and _pilchards_) seasoned
likewise with pepper and oil.
("Gazpacho" is never used in this work, but it obviously was served--ed.)
Pg. 291: ...drank a dish of coffee, and upon that a dram of _maraschino_...
(The revised OED has 1791-3 for "maraschino"--ed.)
Pg. 296: A large Perigord-pasty un the middle, a couple of roasted Turkeys
on the sides of the pasty, with ham, fowls, game, sausages, sallads,
_caparrones_ (a kind of capers as big as filberts), _zebrero_ (a kind of
cheese from the kingdom of Galicia) &c. &c.
Pg. 298: Several card-tables were placed in the room, and we played at
_Manillia_, a fashionable game here, not unlike _Quadrille_.
A RECEIPT to dress ARROZ _a la Valencia_; that is RICE _after the manner
Take pigs-feet, mutton-trotters, bacon, new sausages and
hogs-blood-puddings. Boil all together so long, that the bones be easily
taken off. Cut the whole into small pieces. (Pg. 300--ed.) Boil rice in
the broth made by these ingredients, throwing tow pinches of saffron in it
while boiling. When the rice is half done, take it off the fire, strain it
lightly, put it into a stewing pan, throw the above things into it, reddening
the whole with the yolks of two or three eggs. Leave then the pan to simmer
for about half an hour, not over, but under a brick charcoal fire.
Pg. 305: A _Confradia_ in Spain, like a _Confraternita_ in Italy, is a union
of parishioners of the higher rank...
Pg. 315: The _basquina_ is a black petticoat, commonly of silk...
(OED has 1819 for "basquine"--ed.)
Pg. 35: It admits of music, and is often sung throughout as well as the
_zarzuela_, which is a kind of _petite piece_ in _two acts_ or _two days_.
(OED has an incredibly late 1888 for "zarzuela," but admits that it began in
the 17th century--ed.)
Pg. 36: The lowest of all their dramas are the _Entremes_ and the
Pg. 106: ...your proverb, that _Tutto il mundo e paese_, "_all countries are
Pg. 126: ...he plays at _Reversino_ (a game at cards so called)...
Pg. 190: ...a _Manta_, or _mule covering_...
(The revised OED has 1828 for this "manta"--ed.)
Pg. 215: The old wore _monteras_, or _woollen caps_...
(OED has 1838 for "montera"--ed.)
Pg. 228: By good luck the man of the _venta_ had his _pochero_ ready; that
is, a mess of _garvanzos_ (_chick-peas_) baked to a pap in oil, and seasoned
with garlick, onions, and pepper, besides an ample dish of salt-fish also
fried in oil, as butter cannot be the produce of this gravelly soil.
(OED has 1845 for "puchero"--ed.)
Pg. 305: *_Donzellas del campo_...country maiden, a rustick beauty.
(OED has 1833 for "donzella"--ed.)
Pg. 309: ..._arrieros_(_mule-drivers_)...
(OED has 1826 for "arrieros"--ed.)
Pg. 36: ...while the maids are boiling _Pochero_* and frying the _Abadejo_.
*_Pochero_ is a mess of chick-peas, and French-beans boiled in oil with
onions or garlick, and _Abadejo_ is stock-fish fried in oil.
Pg. 91: I have nothing to add with regard to Barcelona, but that the
_locanda_, or inn, called _La Fonda_, is by much the best I have as yet been
in since I left London.
(OED has 1838 for "locanda." OED has 1826 for "fonda"--ed.)
Pg. 124: Let it be but dinner-time, and I care not a fig for the difference
between macaroni and roast-beef, herring and frogs, the olla and the
sourcraut: a very cosmopolite on the article of filling one's belly.
Pg. 141: But _Nice_ is so ugly a town, and affords so small a number of
amusements, that nothing, I think, but the desire of preserving life, could
induce me to come and live here.
We dined _a table ronde_ to-day...
(Not Nice! The most cruel passage in the book...OED does not record "table
ronde," but he's dining this way several times in this book--ed.)
Pg. 148: The _Fandango and the _Seguedilla_, which are their national
Pg. 150: They have it proverbial, that _el Espanol no dice mentira_, "_the
Spaniard tells no lie_."
(Compare with Crete--ed.)
Son Monaco sopr' uno scoglio:
Non Semino, e non ricoglio:
Eppure mangiar voglio.
In English, "I am Monaco seated on a rock. Neither do I sow, nor gather
any thing; yet I will not starve."
Pg. 207: They make bread with the flower of it (Turkey-corn--ed.), besides a
kind of hasty pudding, like the Italian _polenta_.
Pg. 234: ...smoaking his _Cigarro_; that is, a little tobacco wrapped in a
paper, which serves him instead of a pipe.
(OED has "cigar" from 1735, then 1777...Maybe if I submit "cigar" and
"aficionado" I can be rejected by that magazine, too--ed.)
Pg. 243: The Spaniards have a kind of musical dramas, which they call
_Zarzuelas burlescas_. The music of an _Opera_ (Pg. 244-ed.) _Buffa_ is
perhaps more _learned_ (as Frenchmen term it) than that of a _Zarzuela
(OED has 1801 for "Opera Buffa"--ed.)
Pg. 278: ...the supper consisted in the usual mess of _dry beans_ boiled in
oil, the usual _bacallao_ stewed (Pg. 279--ed.) in oil, the usual _sardinas_
more salt than brine, the usual _oily omelet_, with only the addition of some
_escabeche_, that is, some river-fish pickled with vinegar, sugar, and
garlick, together with some _walnuts_ and _dry grapes_ by way of desert.
Pg. 296: ..._escabeche_...
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