s. . . stephen_lombardo at YAHOO.COM
Tue Jun 25 16:08:27 UTC 2002

Hello. Could you please explain to me the three
utterances below from a notional and pragmatic

"She must have been in Africa." [as opposed to "

"He's been in Alaska twice." [as opposed to "

"She's been in England for a long time."

What exactly is the speaker's location in each of
them? Could he/she possibly be in more places than
one? Where are the three visitors 'now'?

More constructions of that type, which would further
help me clarify the role and meaning of "in" versus
"to," will be much appreciated.


P. Lombardo

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