Smudge - spiritually purify
gogaku at IX.NETCOM.COM
Sat Dec 15 09:21:48 UTC 2012
Here are some citations that make smudging clear. According to these citations, it appears that the meaning of "smudge" to purify spiritually with smoke is included in the 1912 citations, though they don't mention it explicitly (perhaps elsewhere in the books).
1. Anthropological Series, Issue 16: 1957
The latter would meet with some fatality unless the keeper agreed to avert the evil by performing the proper rite over him. The keeper would direct the man to build a sweat-lodge and would enter it with him. The man would fumigate himself and inhale the smudge. The keeper would rub the man all over from head to feet with sage.
2. Use of plants for the past 500 years: 1979
1933 H. Smith POTAWATOMI 48. "Pearly everlasting. Anaphalis margaritacea. The Forest Potawatomi dry the flowers of this species and smoke it in a pipe or smudge it on coals to drive or keep evil spirits out of the room, which might prevent a patient from recovering.
3. L.A.: My Way: 1990
"Smudge stick. Sage to banish and sweetgrass to bless. The Indians have used them for centuries to cleanse unwanted spirits or negative energy from a person, place, or thing"
4. Proposed amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act....: 1993
AS A TRADITIONAL LAKOTA, I HAVE BEEN TAUGHT TO SMUDGE WITH SAGE, SWEETGRASS, AND CEDAR, TO FORCE ANY EVIL SPIRIT TO LEAVE THE AREA AND MY PRESENCE WHEN I PRAY.
On Dec 13, 2012, at 8:50 PM, Benjamin Barrett <gogaku at ix.netcom.com> wrote:
> The OED says about the verb "smudge":=20
> Now dial. and N. Amer.
> To make a smoky fire in (a tent, etc.); to fill with smoke from a =
> smudge. Also, to cause (a fire) to smoke; to drive (mosquitoes, etc.) =
> away by smoke. Now rare.
> Citations go back to 1860.
> The verb has another meaning: to spiritually purify as in to eliminate =
> bad spirits, etc.
> I see two citations in 1912 that refer to Native American ceremonies:
> According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smudging, the use of the term =
> "smudge" is considered offensive by some Native Americans, but it is =
> used by non-Indigenous New Age/Neopagan/Neoshamanism practitioners. =
> Evidently sage is very common.
> A citation is needed for this meaning.
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