Antedating of "Closed Shop"

Shapiro, Fred fred.shapiro at YALE.EDU
Wed Jun 20 14:34:17 UTC 2012

closed shop (OED 1904)

1903 _Jackson_ (Michigan) _Daily Citizen_ 18 Aug. (America's Historical Newspapers)  President Roosevelt's defense of the open-shop system is criticised in the Chicago Federation of Labor meeting.  The federation asks the removal of Foreman Miller, and will prepare a defense of the closed shop.

Fred Shapiro

The American Dialect Society -

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