[Ads-l] gaslighting

Jonathan Lighter wuxxmupp2000 at GMAIL.COM
Fri Dec 24 14:17:27 EST 2021


Speaking of dating, is it no longer possible to see Google Books results in
chronological order?

JL

On Fri, Dec 24, 2021 at 12:35 PM Shapiro, Fred <fred.shapiro at yale.edu>
wrote:

> Does Schmidt factor in the impact of Google Books' charming habit of
> dating serial publications by the year in which the serial began publishing
> rather than the year of the issue ?
>
> Fred Shapiro
>
>
> ________________________________
> From: American Dialect Society <ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU> on behalf of
> Jesse Sheidlower <jester at PANIX.COM>
> Sent: Friday, December 24, 2021 9:38 AM
> To: ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU <ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU>
> Subject: Re: gaslighting
>
> It's also worth mentioning that the data scientist Ben Schmidt, who has
> written code to calculate the likelihood of a particular word or bigram
> being found at a particular time (based on the Google Books data), Tweeted
> yesterday that he analysed the Ricardos script and found six items that
> were less likely to be said in 1952 than "gaslight":
>
> * postproduction
> * 'timeline' of a pregnancy
> * the 'female perspective'
> * having a 'corporate retreat'
> * 'keep a low profile'
> * a woman's 'physicality'.
>
>
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fbenmschmidt%2Fstatus%2F1474057321986801670&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=9%2Bqu%2FXnpzOZ8u9XIqejadzpKCbqK%2B9eqiIJkeDL0jT0%3D&reserved=0
>
> Jesse Sheidlower
>
> On Fri, Dec 24, 2021 at 08:52:25AM -0500, Ben Yagoda wrote:
> > Thanks, Garson. I put a version of the post on my website, no paywall or
> registration required:
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbenyagoda.com%2F2017%2F01%2F20%2Fhow-old-is-gaslighting%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=K5xRJVr8Wb13FFWMkNpKwtyWXfsI%2BTxWbhtd7Pk7SiA%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbenyagoda.com%2F2017%2F01%2F20%2Fhow-old-is-gaslighting%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=K5xRJVr8Wb13FFWMkNpKwtyWXfsI%2BTxWbhtd7Pk7SiA%3D&reserved=0
> >
> >
> > I’ve also been alerted to an earlier (1948) use of “the ‘Gaslight’
> treatment” from the Miami News, vis newspapers.com <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fnewspapers.com%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=PrMIZofvi%2FsEfuOyDl2tjgnV22ljBhta6%2Frevg9ObKs%3D&reserved=0
> >:
> >
> > GASLIGHT--Divorce petitions filed in Dade circuit court in recent weeks
> reveal an influence traceable to the current run of movies dealing with
> psychiatric plots, especially those in which the husband tries to convince
> the wife she is crazy. Several complainants have charged husbands with
> actions designed to produce fear of mental unbalance, and one suit, filed
> the other day, claimed the husband "gave her the Gaslight treatment.”
> >
> > Ben
> >
> > > Date:    Thu, 23 Dec 2021 08:00:58 -0500
> > > From:    ADSGarson O'Toole <adsgarsonotoole at GMAIL.COM <mailto:
> adsgarsonotoole at GMAIL.COM>>
> > > Subject: Re: Verb form of gaslight used in script of video series
> "Being the Ricardos" circa 1953
> > >
> > > Ben Yagoda wrote a pertinent article titled "How Old Is
> > > ‘Gaslighting’?" at "The Chronicle of Higher Education" website back on
> > > January 12, 2017.
> > >
> > > Restricted access requiring registration / paywall
> > >
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw1hKtNSERsuAYId3yAg8410&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=FbwJGwvDKQBAsq63fL%2Fxfpowo32nT3pSKbzaftNCjIU%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw1hKtNSERsuAYId3yAg8410&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=FbwJGwvDKQBAsq63fL%2Fxfpowo32nT3pSKbzaftNCjIU%3D&reserved=0
> >
> > >
> > > Snapshot of article
> > >
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20170114192601%2Fhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw2af0lxx1oQP-UpTUpigX0-&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=aEomvecoeromAEnwyCZq252SY8UMlbyT1vNLiWiLmag%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20170114192601%2Fhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw2af0lxx1oQP-UpTUpigX0-&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=aEomvecoeromAEnwyCZq252SY8UMlbyT1vNLiWiLmag%3D&reserved=0
> >
> > >
> > > [Begin excerpt]
> > > The estimable Zimmer wasn’t done. Consulting with Josh Chetwynd,
> > > author of Totally Scripted: Idioms, Words, and Quotes From Hollywood
> > > to Broadway That Have Changed the English Language, which has an entry
> > > on gaslight, he located and watched a 1952 episode of The Burns and
> > > Allen Show called “Grace Buying Boat for George.” (It’s a tough job
> > > but somebody’s got to do it.) Zimmer wrote, “At 16:20 in the YouTube
> > > video, Harry (Fred Clark) says to Gracie, ‘Give him the gaslight
> > > treatment!’ and then explains what that means. A bit later you hear
> > > George say, ‘So they sold Gracie on the gaslight bit.’”
> > >
> > > Still no verb, you’ll notice.
> > > [End excerpt]
> > >
> > > Hence, Sorkin's version of Lucille Ball would have been fine if she
> > > had said "Don't give me the gaslight treatment."
> > >
> > > Garson
> >
> > ------------------------------------------------------------
> > The American Dialect Society -
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.americandialect.org%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=vcG%2FafAzr%2BxeP%2B3Jl69DaG0iDwbRQR7agbF4fpy0gLU%3D&reserved=0
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------
> The American Dialect Society -
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.americandialect.org%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=vcG%2FafAzr%2BxeP%2B3Jl69DaG0iDwbRQR7agbF4fpy0gLU%3D&reserved=0
>
> ________________________________
> From: American Dialect Society <ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU> on behalf of
> Jesse Sheidlower <jester at PANIX.COM>
> Sent: Friday, December 24, 2021 9:38 AM
> To: ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU <ADS-L at LISTSERV.UGA.EDU>
> Subject: Re: gaslighting
>
> It's also worth mentioning that the data scientist Ben Schmidt, who has
> written code to calculate the likelihood of a particular word or bigram
> being found at a particular time (based on the Google Books data), Tweeted
> yesterday that he analysed the Ricardos script and found six items that
> were less likely to be said in 1952 than "gaslight":
>
> * postproduction
> * 'timeline' of a pregnancy
> * the 'female perspective'
> * having a 'corporate retreat'
> * 'keep a low profile'
> * a woman's 'physicality'.
>
>
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fbenmschmidt%2Fstatus%2F1474057321986801670&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=9%2Bqu%2FXnpzOZ8u9XIqejadzpKCbqK%2B9eqiIJkeDL0jT0%3D&reserved=0
>
> Jesse Sheidlower
>
> On Fri, Dec 24, 2021 at 08:52:25AM -0500, Ben Yagoda wrote:
> > Thanks, Garson. I put a version of the post on my website, no paywall or
> registration required:
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbenyagoda.com%2F2017%2F01%2F20%2Fhow-old-is-gaslighting%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=K5xRJVr8Wb13FFWMkNpKwtyWXfsI%2BTxWbhtd7Pk7SiA%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fbenyagoda.com%2F2017%2F01%2F20%2Fhow-old-is-gaslighting%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=K5xRJVr8Wb13FFWMkNpKwtyWXfsI%2BTxWbhtd7Pk7SiA%3D&reserved=0
> >
> >
> > I’ve also been alerted to an earlier (1948) use of “the ‘Gaslight’
> treatment” from the Miami News, vis newspapers.com <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fnewspapers.com%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=PrMIZofvi%2FsEfuOyDl2tjgnV22ljBhta6%2Frevg9ObKs%3D&reserved=0
> >:
> >
> > GASLIGHT--Divorce petitions filed in Dade circuit court in recent weeks
> reveal an influence traceable to the current run of movies dealing with
> psychiatric plots, especially those in which the husband tries to convince
> the wife she is crazy. Several complainants have charged husbands with
> actions designed to produce fear of mental unbalance, and one suit, filed
> the other day, claimed the husband "gave her the Gaslight treatment.”
> >
> > Ben
> >
> > > Date:    Thu, 23 Dec 2021 08:00:58 -0500
> > > From:    ADSGarson O'Toole <adsgarsonotoole at GMAIL.COM <mailto:
> adsgarsonotoole at GMAIL.COM>>
> > > Subject: Re: Verb form of gaslight used in script of video series
> "Being the Ricardos" circa 1953
> > >
> > > Ben Yagoda wrote a pertinent article titled "How Old Is
> > > ‘Gaslighting’?" at "The Chronicle of Higher Education" website back on
> > > January 12, 2017.
> > >
> > > Restricted access requiring registration / paywall
> > >
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw1hKtNSERsuAYId3yAg8410&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=FbwJGwvDKQBAsq63fL%2Fxfpowo32nT3pSKbzaftNCjIU%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw1hKtNSERsuAYId3yAg8410&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=FbwJGwvDKQBAsq63fL%2Fxfpowo32nT3pSKbzaftNCjIU%3D&reserved=0
> >
> > >
> > > Snapshot of article
> > >
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20170114192601%2Fhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw2af0lxx1oQP-UpTUpigX0-&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=aEomvecoeromAEnwyCZq252SY8UMlbyT1vNLiWiLmag%3D&reserved=0
> <
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fq%3Dhttps%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20170114192601%2Fhttps%3A%2F%2Fwww.chronicle.com%2Fblogs%2Flinguafranca%2F2017%2F01%2F12%2Fhow-old-is-gaslight%2F%26source%3Dgmail-imap%26ust%3D1640926838000000%26usg%3DAOvVaw2af0lxx1oQP-UpTUpigX0-&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=aEomvecoeromAEnwyCZq252SY8UMlbyT1vNLiWiLmag%3D&reserved=0
> >
> > >
> > > [Begin excerpt]
> > > The estimable Zimmer wasn’t done. Consulting with Josh Chetwynd,
> > > author of Totally Scripted: Idioms, Words, and Quotes From Hollywood
> > > to Broadway That Have Changed the English Language, which has an entry
> > > on gaslight, he located and watched a 1952 episode of The Burns and
> > > Allen Show called “Grace Buying Boat for George.” (It’s a tough job
> > > but somebody’s got to do it.) Zimmer wrote, “At 16:20 in the YouTube
> > > video, Harry (Fred Clark) says to Gracie, ‘Give him the gaslight
> > > treatment!’ and then explains what that means. A bit later you hear
> > > George say, ‘So they sold Gracie on the gaslight bit.’”
> > >
> > > Still no verb, you’ll notice.
> > > [End excerpt]
> > >
> > > Hence, Sorkin's version of Lucille Ball would have been fine if she
> > > had said "Don't give me the gaslight treatment."
> > >
> > > Garson
> >
> > ------------------------------------------------------------
> > The American Dialect Society -
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.americandialect.org%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=vcG%2FafAzr%2BxeP%2B3Jl69DaG0iDwbRQR7agbF4fpy0gLU%3D&reserved=0
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------
> The American Dialect Society -
> https://nam12.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.americandialect.org%2F&data=04%7C01%7Cfred.shapiro%40YALE.EDU%7Ce32ce1cb738b4482222a08d9c6eb112b%7Cdd8cbebb21394df8b4114e3e87abeb5c%7C0%7C0%7C637759536058474329%7CUnknown%7CTWFpbGZsb3d8eyJWIjoiMC4wLjAwMDAiLCJQIjoiV2luMzIiLCJBTiI6Ik1haWwiLCJXVCI6Mn0%3D%7C3000&sdata=vcG%2FafAzr%2BxeP%2B3Jl69DaG0iDwbRQR7agbF4fpy0gLU%3D&reserved=0
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------
> The American Dialect Society - http://www.americandialect.org
>


-- 
"If the truth is half as bad as I think it is, you can't handle the truth."

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The American Dialect Society - http://www.americandialect.org


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