voice and race recognition

s.t. bischoff bischoff.st at gmail.com
Wed Dec 29 13:49:16 UTC 2010

Hi all,

Here is a list of all, I think, of the references that were sent in response
to my quirry. It does seem that this is an issue mostly addressed in
social-psychology. I also received this great link to a website that some
might find useful in the classroom...thanks to Andrew Koontz-Garboden for
the link. Thanks again.


English with an Accent : Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the
United States  PAP  Lippi-Green, Rosina Routledge

 Apple, W., Streeter, L.A., & Krauss, R.M. (1979). Effects of pitch and
speech rate on personal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 37, (5): 715-727.

*John* *Baugh*, *Linguistic* *Profiling*, in Black *Linguistics*: Language,
and Politics in Africa and the Americas 155-63, 2003

*John Baugh* *Racial Identification by Speech* American Speech - Volume 75,
Number 4, Winter 2000, pp. 362-364

Baugh, John.  1996 "Perceptions within a variable paradigm: Black and white
detection and identification based on speech." In E. Schneider
(ed.),Varieties of English Around the World: Focus on the USA. Philadelphia:
John Benjamins, pp. 169-182.

Berry, D.S. (1992). Vocal types and stereotypes: Joint effects of vocal
attractiveness and vocal maturity on person perception. Journal of Nonverbal
Behavior, 16 (1), 41-54.

Ellen Bouchard Ryan and Howard Giles' classic book _Attitudes towards
language variation_, 1982, Edward Arnold publ., ISBN  0713161957.

Cargile, Aaron Castelan, and Giles, Howard.  (1998). Language attitudes
toward varieties of English: An American-Japanese context.  Journal of
Applied Communication Research. 26 (3, August), 338-356.

Dipboye, R.L., Arvey, R.D., & Terpstra, D.E. (1977). Sex and physical
attractiveness of raters and applicants as determinants of resume
evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62 (3), 288-294.

Etaugh, C., & Sanders, S. (1974). Evaluation of performance as a function of
status and sex variables. The Journal of Social Psychology, 94, 237-241.

Futoran, G. C. & Wyer, R.S. (1986). The effects of traits and gender
stereotypes on occupational suitability judgments and the recall of
judgment-relevant information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,
22, 475-503.

Hopper, Robert.  (1977).  Language attitudes in the employment interview.
Communication Monographs. 44 (4, November), 346-351.

Kang, Okim, and Rubin, Donald L. (2009). Reverse linguistic stereotyping:
Measuring the effect of listener expectations on speech evaluation.  Journal
of Language and Social Psychology. 28 (4), 441-456

 Lawrence, S. G., Stucky, N. P., and Hopper, R.  (1990) The effects of sex
dialects and sex stereotypes on speech evaluations.  Journal of Language and
Social Psychology. 9 (3), 209-22
McConnell-Ginet, S. (1978). Intonation in a man's world. Signs: Women in
Culture and Society, 3 (3), 541-559.

Michael, M. (1989). Attribution and ordinary explanation: Cognitivist
predilections and pragmatist alternatives. New Ideas in Psychology. 7(3):

Miller, N., Maruyama, G., Beaber, R.J., & Valone, K. (1976). Speed of speech
and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 615-624.

Thomas Purnell, William Idsardi and John Baugh. 1999. "Perceptual and
Phonetic Experiments on American English Dialect Identification. *Journal of
Social Psychology*

Smith, B.L., Brown, B.L., Strong, W.J. & Rencher, A.C. (1975). Effects of
speech rate on personality perception. Language and Speech, 18, 145-152

Street, Richard L., Jr., Mulac, Anthony, and Wiemann, John M. (1989). Speech
evaluation differences as a function of perspective (participant versus
observer) and presentational medium. Human Communication Research. 14 (3,
Spring), 333-363

Street, Richard L., Jr.  (1985). Participant-observer differences in speech
evaluation.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 4 (2), 125-130.

Swim, J.K., Aikin, K.J., Hall, W.S., & Hunter, B.A. (1995). Sexism and
racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 68 (2), 199-214.

Taylor, S.E. (1981). A categorization approach to stereotyping. In D.L.
Hamilton (Ed.), Cognition Processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior
(pp. 88-114). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Zahn, Christopher J.  (1989). Some data on the predictive validity of the
Speech Evaluation Instrument.  Communication Research Reports. 6 (1, June),

Zahn, Christopher J., and Hopper, Robert. (1985) Measuring language
attitudes: The speech evaluation instrument.  Journal of Language and Social
Psychology. 4 (2), 113-123.

Zuckerman, M. & Miyake, K. (1993). The attractive voice: What makes it so?
Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour, 17, (2): 119-135.

Zuckerman, M. & Driver, R.E. (1989). What sounds beautiful is good: The
vocal attractiveness stereotype. Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour, 13 (2):

International Journal of Intercultural Relations
Volume 14, Issue 3, 1990, Pages 337-353
Effects of accent, ethnicity, and lecture topic on undergraduates'
perceptions of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants
Donald L. Rubin and Kim A. Smith
Department of Speech Communication The University of Georgia, USA

Gill, M. M.  (1994).  Accents and Stereotypes: Their effect on
perceptions of teachers and lecture comprehension.  Journal of Applied
Communication Research, 22, 348-361.

 PhD thesis on '*Voice and Identity*' (2009). The dissertation is stored as
an eDOC under http://deposit.d-nb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?idn=1000286630 . The
corresponding PDf file is

On Tue, Dec 28, 2010 at 2:33 PM, s.t. bischoff <bischoff.st at gmail.com>wrote:

> Hi all,
> Thanks for the stimulating responses, as Claire Bowern notes there has been
> a good deal of research in this area going back at least to the 1970s.
> However, the overwhelming majority seems to be coming from
> social-psychology. I suppose my linguistic bias lead me to think that most
> such work would be coming out of linguistics (socio or anthropological).
> Thanks again,
> Shannon
> PS The NPR test is clever...I've often tried to imagine the  presenters and
> guests background and likeness...curiously I've never gone online to check.
> 2010/12/28 <john at research.haifa.ac.il>
> Forgot to mention--Obama's 'Canadian raising' is presumably from Hawaiian
>> English (ultimately Hawaiian substratum), best-known from the way that
>> natives say the name of the state.
>> John
>> Quoting Johanna Rubba <jrubba at calpoly.edu>:
>> > As to identifying African Americans by their speech, I heard once
>> > that the structure of most AA men's larynx is different from that of
>> > whites, and this was responsible, first of all, for a deeper voice in
>> > many cases, and second of all, for that elusive quality that John
>> > refers to. I immediately pegged this as incredibly racist, but
>> > apparently, according to someone I respected, it was legitimate
>> > science. This was a long time ago. and I don't remember the details.
>> > This could account for a difference between black men and women.
>> >
>> > I'm not sure I'd recognize that Barack Obama was (half) AA merely by
>> > his voice. I certainly have mistaken black speakers for white any
>> > number of times. I just listened to some clips of his speeches on
>> > YouTube and I do hear the voice quality I think John is talking
>> > about. He monophthongizes his /ai/'s sometimes, but also does
>> > Canadian raising on them. I don't detect any of the other cues that
>> > usually flag an AA voice for me (e.g., glottal stop at the end of
>> > words that end in /t/).
>> >
>> > You've probably heard of John Baugh's personal experiment of calling
>> > about apartments for rent, sometimes using AA English, and sometimes
>> > standard English. He gets far more callbacks when using his "white"
>> > voice.
>> >
>> > I'm a regular NPR listener and I often speculate on both the
>> > ethnicity and the personal appearance of their speakers. There are
>> > photos of all of the speakers (and some of the people you don't hear,
>> > like Kee Malesky and Doug Berman) on the NPR website, and I have
>> > checked several of the speakers that I suspected were AA. I was right
>> > about Korva Coleman, Cheryl Corely, Audie Cornish, Alison Keyes, and
>> > Juan Williams, but wrong about Ann Taylor, Barbara Bradley Hagerty,
>> > and Paul Brown. In general, most of the people I've checked don't
>> > look at all like I would have expected. Terri Gross and the Magliozzi
>> > brothers look pretty much like what I would have expected, but others
>> > do not look at all like I expected. Interestingly, I had pegged Steve
>> > Innskeep as being attractive, and got pretty close to his facial type.
>> >
>> > A cool little experiment. Try it sometime!
>> >
>> > Dr. Johanna Rubba, Ph. D.
>> > Professor, Linguistics
>> > Linguistics Minor Advisor
>> > English Dept.
>> > Cal Poly State University San Luis Obispo
>> > San Luis Obispo, CA 93407
>> > Ofc. tel. : 805-756-2184
>> > Dept. tel.: 805-756-2596
>> > Dept. fax: 805-756-6374
>> > E-mail: jrubba at calpoly.edu
>> > URL: http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba <http://cla.calpoly.edu/%7Ejrubba>
>> >
>> >
>> >
>> >
>> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
>> This message was sent using IMP, the Webmail Program of Haifa University

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