Minimal vs. augmented inclusive cohortative

Marcel Erdal erdal at EM.UNI-FRANKFURT.DE
Tue Nov 27 15:44:47 UTC 2001

Dear Colleagues,
Turkmen distinguishes between a dual and a plural 1st person imperative,
such that
Televizor gOr-eli is 'Let us, you and me, watch television'
Televizor gOr-eling 'Let us all watch television'.

This difference is very common in texts.
One imagines that the -ng element was taken over from the 2nd person plural,
whose suffix is -(X)ng (i.e. just -ng after vowel).

Marcel Erdal
Professor of Turcology
Institut für Orientalische und Ostasiatische Philologien
Fachbereich 9 (Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften)
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
P.O.B. 11 19 32
D-60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Tel.:   +49-69-79 82 28 58    Fax    +49-69-79 82 49 74
Home:   +49-69-95 29 71 97    Mail   erdal at

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> Von: Michael Daniel <daniel at QUB.COM>
> Antworten an: daniel at
> Datum: Mon, 26 Nov 2001 19:00:30 +0300
> Betreff: Minimal vs. augmented inclusive cohortative
> Dear all,
> in most (if not all) languages there is a form or construction
> expressing exhortation to a group including the speaker himself and the
> addressee to perform an action together. Cf. English "Let's go!", French
> "Allons!" etc.
> I am looking for languages which in some way (not necessarily
> inflectional!) distinguish between exhortation towards the speaker and
> the addressee alone, on one hand, and towards the speaker, the
> addressee, and someone else, on the other. (This is sometimes called 1st
> Dual Imperative vs. 1st  Plural Imperative).
> This is exemplified by Russian constructions:
> Davaj    spoj-em!
> PART    sing-1PL
> Let's sing! [thou and me]
> Davaj-te    spoj-em
> PART-2PL    sing-1PL
> Let's sing! [thou and me and one or more person more]
> I am also very interested in knowing that such and such language
> definitely _does not_ expresses this distinction in any way.
> Nina Dobrushina

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