14.912, Review: General Linguistics: Akatsuka & Strauss (2002)

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LINGUIST List:  Vol-14-912. Fri Mar 28 2003. ISSN: 1068-4875.

Subject: 14.912, Review: General Linguistics: Akatsuka & Strauss (2002)

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Date:  Fri, 28 Mar 2003 00:02:02 +0000
From:  Spas Rangelov <116008 at soas.ac.uk>
Subject:  Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 10

-------------------------------- Message 1 -------------------------------

Date:  Fri, 28 Mar 2003 00:02:02 +0000
From:  Spas Rangelov <116008 at soas.ac.uk>
Subject:  Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 10

Akatsuka, Noriko M. and Susan Strauss, ed. (2002) Japanese/Korean
Linguistics, Volume 10. CSLI Publications.

Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/13-1647.html

Spas Rangelov, University of London


Japanese/Korean Linguistic Volume 10 is the newest addition to the
Japanese/Korean Linguistics series. In Volume 10 Noriko Akatsuka and
Susan Strauss return as editors of the long-running series (previously
Akatsuka has edited or co-edited Volumes 4, 5 and 7, and Strauss has
co-edited Volumes 5 and 7). Like the previous volumes in this series
it presents papers from the Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference, an
annual forum for linguists who work in these fields, mainly in the USA
but also in other countries. The papers in the volume have been
delivered at the Tenth Japanese/Korean Linguistics Conference that was
held in October 2000. The number of the papers included in the volume
is 45. Twelve of them are by the specially invited speakers and the
rest have been competitively selected. They are divided into five
parts that reflects the conference's ''unique division into five
panels'' (from the back cover). The book is dedicated to the memory of
the distinguished linguist James D. McCawley (1938-1999) who has
contributed greatly to the development of both Japanese and Korean
linguistics and was, as the editors write, ''one of the giants of 20th
century general linguistics.'' The invited speakers are all his
friends and former students. The name of Jim McCawley gets mentioned
in some of the papers with warmth and admiration. On the second page
of the book there is a reproduction of a photograph of McCawley. After
the preface there is a an account by McCawley that he contributed to
the family newsletter which adds a deeply felt personal touch to the

Part I, Cognition and Grammar, consists of eight papers that deal from
different angles with the interactions of syntax, semantics and

The first paper is ''On the Interaction of Temporal and Modal Meaning
in Japanese Conditionals'' by Wesley M. Jacobsen, one of the invited
speakers. The paper addresses a topic that is related to Japanese
conditionals that have already been examined by the author elsewhere
(Jacobsen 1999). In this further study an account is proposed for the
tendency for aspectually stative conditional clauses to be given a
hypothetical interpretation. The study is in the framework of
establishing correlations between semantic parameters and certain
meanings, e.g. hypothetical meaning.

''Processing Japanese and Korean: Full Attachment versus Efficiency''
by William O'Grady, Michiko Nakamura and Miseon Lee examines the
problems of parsing languages of the type of Japanese and Korean in a
formalist framework. The formalist analyses and processing schemes for
SOV languages and SVO languages are contrasted in the context of
machine processing of texts. A special attention is paid to quantifier
structures and their treatment is based on earlier analyses (O'Grady
1991, Sells 1995). The theoretical and practical implications of this
type of studies are very important for contemporary science.

''Japanese and Korean Causatives Revisited'' by Masayoshi Shibatani
and Sung Yeo Chung is an important contribution to the debate on
Japanese and Korean causatives. Despite the similarities, the
morphology and semantics of the causatives in the two languages
demonstrate differences. A contrastive approach actually proves
fruitful in clarifying the morphological and semantic irregularities
and mismatches within each language.

Sung-Chool Im's ''Characteristic Lexicalization Patterns of Motion
Events in Korean'' uses the conflation patterns of semantic elements
in cognitive semantics to account for three characteristic
lexicalization patterns of motion verbs in Korean in a
typological-functional framework. The paper is clearly written and
comprehensively accounts for the different groups of monomorphemic and
polymorphemic motion verbs.

''The Processing of Wh-phrases and Interrogative Complementizers in
Japanese'' by Edson T. Miyamoto and Shoichi Takahashi argues that the
processing of in-situ wh-phrases in Japanese can be explained by the
same procedure that underlies the processing of fronted wh-phrases in
English. Combining the achievements of the generative and the
psycholinguistic traditions, the authors support the proposed model
with the results of a reading time experiment.

''On Sound Symbolism in Japanese and Korean'' by Reijirou Shibasaki is
based on two experiments, a psychological one and a phonological one.
The author starts with a working hypothesis about the sound symbolic
words (SSWs) which is reformulated at the end due to the findings. The
study reaches the conclusion that SSWs are rich in quantity,
systematically organized and highly motivated.

Mitsuaki Shimojo's ''A Cognitive Account of Extraction Asymmetry in
Japanese Relative Clauses'' investigates the similarities and the
differences between the so-called externally-headed relative clauses
(EHRCs) and internally-headed relative clauses (IHRCs) (the latter are
studied in other papers in this book). The author finds that the two
types are analogous in relativization and topicalization but wh-
questions in IHRCs are more restricted than in EHRCs. The study is
from a cognitive perspective.

''Grammar, Cognition and Procedure as Reflected in Route Directions in
Japanese, Korean and American English'' by Susan Strauss, Hanae
Katayama and Jong Oh Eun is based on a corpus of 75 spontaneously
produced route directions elicited from people on a university campus
in three different languages: Japanese, Korean and American
English. The cross- linguistic analysis uncovers tendencies in the
grammar of each language which reflect deeper levels of human

Part II, Discourse and Conversation, consists of eight papers.

The first paper in this part, ''When Does Communication Turn Mentally
Inward?: A Case Study of Japanese Formal-to-Informal Switching'' by
Seiichi Makino from Princeton University, one of the invited speakers,
addresses the interesting phenomenon of formal-to-informal switching
in the context of Japanese discourse studies. The author discusses the
choice between informal and formal forms at the sentence level and
then investigates the more complex discourse phenomena from a variety
of viewpoints. It is found that formal-to-informal switching signals
that the speaker turns the communicative direction inwardly.

''Markers of Epistemic vs. Affective Stances: Desyoo vs. Zyanai'' by
Naomi Hanaoka McGloin examines closely and compares two Japanese
sentence-final expressions, desyoo and zyanai, in the framework of
text analysis. The author shows that desyoo can be considered as a
marker of epistemic stance while zyanai can be viewed as a marker of
affected stance.

Haruko Minegishi Cook's ''The Social Meanings of the Japanese Plain
Form'' examines the use of the so-called plain form in Japanese in the
framework of discourse modality. It is concluded that the plain form
foregrounds an affect key if there is one; otherwise it foregrounds
the informational content. The author also finds that ''occurrence of
the naked plain form in speech is not random in at least institutional
settings.'' It is also noted that intonation plays an important role
in interpreting social meaning.

The fourth paper in this part, ''Listener Responses in Telephone and
Face-to-face Conversations: How do Non-verbal Behaviors Affect
Japanese and English Interactions?'' by Hiroko Furo, investigates how
nonverbal cues, like gestures and head nods, affect social interaction
by exploring how frequently and at what points listener responses are
verbalized in telephone and face-to-face conversations. It also
studies how culture affects verbal and nonverbal listening behaviours
by comparing conversation in Japanese and American English. The author
finds that nonverbal cues affect Japanese and English conversations to
a similar degree.

Kaoru Horie and Kaori Taira's ''Where Korean and Japanese Differ:
Modality vs. Discourse Modality'' finds that modality systems in
Korean and Japanese are similar only superficially; at closer
inspection they exhibit remarkable difference. The authors sum up that
modality meaning related to propositional content is elaborately
encoded in Korean, whereas discourse modality is systematically
manifested in Japanese.

''Demonstratives as Prospective Indexicals: ku and ce in Korean
Conversation'' by Kyu-hyun Kim and Kyung-Hee Suh is a thorough study
of the functions of two demonstrative attributive words, ku and ce,
which are part of the demonstrative triad i/ku/ce. The paper
explicates the uses of the two forms when they are used as prospective
indexicals and highlights the differences between the two in an
illuminating way that both researchers and learners of Korean will
find satisfying.

Maeri Megumi's ''The Switching Between desu/masu Form and Plain Form:
>>From Perspective of Turn Construction'' uses the methodology of
conversation analysis to examine a peculiar phenomenon in Japanese,
the switching from the so-called desu/masu forms to plain forms, in
the framework of the theory of politeness. The author explores the
empirical material and reaches interesting conclusions about the
situations in which speakers choose to switch from one register to
another and the importance of the social factors and implications,
like social status and sex of the speaker, whether they are speaking
to a specific person or giving a presentation to an audience, etc.

The last paper in this part, Emi Morita's ''Stance Marking in the
Collaborative Completion of Sentences: Final Particles as Epistemic
Markers in Japanese,'' studies cases in which utterance completion
includes attitudinal markers in the shape of final particles, e.g. yo,
ne, yone. The author finds that speakers employ them to position
themselves as candidates for collaboration to various degrees.
Regarding final particles as markers of epistemic stance, the author
shows how using them in conversation a second speaker can claim
different degrees of authority.

Part III, Historical Linguistics and Grammaticalization, has the
fewest number of papers, seven. They are a welcome and refreshing
addition to a somewhat neglected subfield of Japanese and Korean

The first paper in this part is Sang-Cheol Ahn's ''A Dispersion
Account on Middle Korean Vowel Shifts.'' The author accounts for the
processes, usually referred to as ''the Vowel Shift in Middle Korean''
from the perspectives of the Dispersion Theory in conjunction with the
postulates of the Optimality Theory (OT). The arguments are supported
by a body of correspondences between Middle Mongolian words and 15th
century Korean loanwords from Mongolian.

The next papers is ''Genitive tu in OJ and Historical Changes of
Genitive Particles'' by Yu Hirata. Using the methods of historical
linguistics the author charts the history of a specific linguistic
form, tu in Old Japanese (OJ), from Genitive marker (GEN) to
Pronominal Genitive (Pro-GEN) to Bound Pronominal (Bd-Pro) and then to
Nominalizer (NMZ) and Sentence Final Particle (SFP). The relationship
with Korean and its likely cognate, s, is also addressed.

In Minju Kim's ''On the Emergence of Korean Concessive myense:
Focusing on the Grammaticalization of se'' the history of the Korean
clausal connective myense is thoroughly explored. Examining the
evidence from phonology and linguistic change the author traces back
the origin of the linguistic form to the forms mye and se and also
addresses the issue of the status of se generally. The different forms
in which the element se is contained are accounted for in the
grammaticalization framework.

Kyoko Hirose Ohara's ''From Relativization to Clause-linkage: A
Constructional Account of Japanese Internally Headed Relativization''
discusses the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of the so-
called ''concessive clause-linking constructions.'' She also proposes
that the Internally Headed Relativization (IHR) constructions (also
discussed in Matsuda's paper in Part V) may be reanalysed in Modern
Japanese as concessive clause-linking constructions. The evidence
points to the necessity to consider the diachronic data and the
grammaticalization processes when analysing and explaining Modern
Japanese grammar.

Kaoru Ohta's ''Kakarimusubi and Focus Structure'' is a paper that
deals with the so-called Kakarimusibi (KM) constructions in Old
Japanese (OJ). An analysis of the Focus interpretation of these and
the Middle Japanese (MJ) pseudocleft constructions is proposed in a
general formalist framework. The work uses synchronic rather than
diachronic approaches towards the language phenomena.

''Discourse, Grammaticalization, & Intonation: An Analysis of -ketun
in Korean'' by Mee-Jeong Park and Sung-Ock S. Sohn is a study of the
Korean verbal suffix -ketun from a historical and grammaticalizational
perspective, as well as in a pragmatic context. Studying the interplay
of discourse and intonation in the usages of -ketun, the authors reach
insights about the discourse-based grammaticalization and the role of
intonation and tone features in language change.

''Kakari Musubi, Noda-constructions, and How Grammaticalization Theory
Meets Formal Grammar'' by Wolfram Schaffar also looks at the so-called
Kakari Musubi constructions in Classical Japanese, like Ohta's paper
from this part. The author clarifies the notion of morphological
'focus' and 'background.' For the theoretical discussion data from a
variety of languages (including Tibeto-Burman and African) is brought
forward. In order to account for the Kakari Musubi constructions and
the origin and development of Modern Japanese Noda-constructions a
cyclic grammaticalization process with four steps is put forward.

Part IV, Phonetics and Phonology, unites eight papers covering a range
of topics in Japanese and Korean sound systems and prosody.

The part opens with a paper by one of the invited speakers, S.-Y.
Kuroda, ''Rendaku.'' The author acknowledges the significance of
McCawley 1968 in establishing the foundations of generative phonology
of Japanese. Then the author summarizes the facts and the
interpretations of the Japanese linguistic phenomenon rendaku, the
voicing of voiceless obstruents at the beginning of an internal
component of a compound word, and gives an elegant and comprehensive
formal account of the relevant part of Japanese phonology.

The next paper in this part is ''Supporting Korean and Japanese on the
Internet: Web Standards, Unicode and National Character Encodings'' by
Katsuhiko Momoi from Netscape Communications Corp. This paper is more
about writing systems and text processing rather than about phonetics
or phonology. It is very informative and gives answers to an awful lot
of questions about Korean, Japanese and Chinese IT support that often
appear on various dedicated mailing lists and discussion groups in
Japanese and Korean studies. It provides the reader with a lot of
useful information on encoding methods, fonts, character set
standards, input method editors, etc. It is good reference for the
current situation.

The third paper in this part is Timothy J. Vance's ''Semantic
Bifurcation in Japanese Compound Verbs'' investigates an interesting
phenomenon: the coexistence of compound verbs in Japanese with
alternation of the final mora of the first element with a mora
obstruent in parallel with the source form and the bifurcation of
meaning that accompanies this phenomenon. Insightful observations
about expressiveness and semantic diversification are made.

''Moraic Structure and Segment Duration in Korean'' by Emily Curtis is
an elegant and comprehensive exposition of a production experiment
that tests the effects on vowel duration of various syllable and
moraic configurations. Korean is chosen as an appropriate language for
such an experiment and the findings are insightful about the
interaction of the moraic and the syllabic articulation of Korean.

Stuart Davis and Isao Ueda's ''Mora Augmentation in Shizuoka
Japanese'' is of great interest because it presents a not very well
known feature of the Shizuoka dialect of Japanese, mora augmentation
in adjectival emphasis. The very complex patterns of mora augmentation
are accounted for in a unified manner in the formal framework of
Optimality Theory.

''Phonetic Duration of English /s/ and its borrowing in Korean'' by
Soohee Kim and Emily Curtis deals with the issues of phonemic
adaptation of loanwords; in this case the focus is on the
accommodation in Korean of the English consonant /s/. The theoretical
elaborations are accompanied by two experiments, a production one and
a perception one, and the conclusions point to possible paths of
future research in that vein.

Byung-Jin Lim's ''Local and Global Patterns of Temporal Compensations
in Korean'' concentrates on the temporal compensatory interaction
between vowel length, aspiration, tension and voicing of consonants
and syllable structure in Korean. The study also finds that the
interval from consonant release to consonant release ''shows
relatively constant values'' and that is compared to the peculiarities
of Korean traditional orthography. The results confirm previous
studies and also lead to some new conclusions.

''Prosody and Information Structure in Japanese: A Case Study of Topic
Marker wa'' by Kimiko Nakanishi is a study of the interface of prosody
and information structure. The author explores to what extent
phonological means express information structure. Two experiments and
a corpus study are conducted with the aim to examine the prosodic
patterns of the topic marker wa in two functions, thematic and
contrastive. The exposition is richly illustrated with charts that
visualize the findings.

Part V, Syntax and Semantics, contains fourteen papers that examine
questions of syntax.

The first paper in this part is ''Information Unpackaging: A
Constraint- based Unified Grammar Approach to Topic-Focus
Articulation'' by Suk-Jin Chang from Seoul National University. The
approached subject is the ''topic-focus articulation'' (TFA) of the
sentence, a notion that comes from the tradition of the Prague
Linguistic Circle. This short but very interesting paper concentrates
on two subtopics: the interaction of the stress (as a prosodic
feature) with the TFA, and dialogue analysis from the perspective of
TFA. A special emphasis is put on the prosody- pragmatics interface
and its implications for the information analysis.  The framework is
formalist, stemming from Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and is
called Constraint-based Unified Grammar of Korean (CUG/K). It has been
developed by the same author in previous publications (e.g. Chang
1994). The potential applications of this innovative framework for the
study of Korean, as well as Japanese, are also mentioned.

Susumu Kuno's ''NPI Licensing, O/Ga Alternation, Verb Raising and
Scrambling'' revisits some widely discussed topics in the literature
on Japanese linguistics in the generative tradition, like the
bracketing of the potential and experiential constructions, the
alternation of the case markers O and Ga, case assignment, verb
raising, Negative Polarity Items (NPI). The proposed new insights are
illuminating and convincing.

''Negative Polarity in Korean and Japanese'' by Chungmin Lee is a
profound study of the distribution and development of NPIs and Free
Choice Items (FPI) in Japanese and Korean in an advanced generative
framework. A ''unified solution of concession'' is proposed that will
certainly be useful in examining similar phenomena in other languages
that share typological features with Japanese and Korean in this

Yoko Sugioka's ''Incorporation vs. Modification in Deverbal
Compounds'' examines the syntax of an interesting feature of Japanese
morphology, the deverbal compounds (VC) in the framework of the
tradition of Sugioka 1984. The paper illuminates the properties of the
argument VCs and adjunct VCs from different angles: semantic,
syntactic, phonological (especially interesting sections on accent
patterns and rendaku).

''Syntactic and Pragmatic Properties of the NPI Yekan in Korean'' by
Sae- Youn Cho and Han-Gyu Lee is a thorough analysis of the syntactic
properties (in a generative framework) and the pragmatics of a
specific Negative Polarity Item in Korean. As the authors point out it
is essential to study such items individually and ''more empirical
research is required.'' In this respect this is a pioneering paper.

''The Interpretation of Wh-elements in Conjoined Wh-questions'' by
Sungeun Cho and Xuan Zhou is a short paper that examines in detail a
curious issue: while some conjoined wh-questions in languages like
English can be ambiguous, the conjoined wh-questions in languages like
Korean or Japanese are not. The phenomena are approached in a
minimalist framework.

In ''Complex Predicate Formation and Argument Structure of Japanese
V-V Compounds'' Thomas Gamerschlag gives an account of the grammar of
a subclass of Japanese verb compounds, namely the ''lexical compound
verbs,'' characterized by the absence of complement-functor relation
between the two verbs in the compound. The proposed innovative
analysis is in the theoretical framework of Lexical Decomposition
Grammar (LDG).

In ''Nominative-Genitive Conversion Revisited'' Ken Hiraiwa from
Massachusetts Institute of Technology re-examines the traditional
analysis (in the generative tradition) of Nominative-Genitive
Conversion (NGC) in Japanese and supplies a lot of evidence to show
that it is not very adequate and convincing. The author proposes a new
descriptive generalization of NGC in a minimalist framework that is of
higher adequacy.

''A 'Removal' Type of Negative Predicates'' by Jieun Joe and Chungmin
Lee is yet another paper on negation in this book. This one is highly
theoretical. It establishes a new class of negative predicates,
removal predicates, and discusses in depth the kinds of removal
predicates, as well as their semantics, syntax and morphological

Jong Sup Jun's ''Semantic Co-Composition of the Korean Substantival
Nouns-ha(ta) Construction: Evidence for the Generative Lexicon''
explains the semantics of the verbal constructions with the ''light
verb'' hata in Korean. Using co-composition a device in the Generative
Lexicon (GL) theoretical framework, the author adequately describes
the corresponding facts in Korean and proposes a correlate in English.

Ae-Ryung Kim's ''Two Positions of Korean Negation'' is a profound
study of the two types of Korean verbal negative constructions,
commonly known as short-form negation and long-form negation. The
author reviews the existing analyses and proposes a new analysis of
the constructions and the status of the negation marker ani. The
advantages of the suggested hypothesis are convincingly demonstrated.

''Opacity in Japanese and Korean'' by Ae-Ryung Kim and Yoshihisa
Kitagawa is a theoretical development of the notion of opacity (that
is part of the generative tradition since the 1970s) in a minimalist
framework.  The authors introduce the notion of 'relativized opacity'
and explore its implications for Japanese and Korean, as well as some
phenomena in English.

''Intervention Effects are Focus Effects'' by Shin-Sook Kim is an
interesting cross-linguistic study of interrogative and negative
constructions in a minimalist framework. Analysing NPIs in Korean as
focus phrases, the author argues that an Intervention Effect is
produced by focus phrases. Material from other languages, including
Hindi and German, is brought into consideration too.

Yuki Matsuda's '' Event Sensitivity of Head-Internal Relatives in
Japanese'' proposes an interesting semantic account of the Japanese
constructions known as Head-Internal Relative (HIR) clauses (they are
also discussed in Ohara's paper from Part II as Internally Headed
Relativization clauses (IHRC)). The novel analysis accounts for a lot
of problematic data. The advantage of this analysis is that it takes
into consideration the semantic properties of the HIR clauses and is
not purely syntactic.

There is a very carefully designed and useful index of topics at the
end of the book.


It is very difficult for a single reviewer to evaluate forty-five
different papers who are written in different frameworks, follow
different traditions and refer to numerous publications. Inevitably, a
single person will be attracted to the ones that are close to their
research interests while other papers will be harder to follow and
understand. It will be almost impossible to evaluate them even-
handedly. Nevertheless, it can be definitely said that this volume's
papers are clearly written and are accessible to readers with general
specialist knowledge.

The book is an excellently edited and good-looking volume combining a
large number of papers that approach different issues in Japanese and
Korean linguistics from a variety of theoretical perspectives. The
book is a forum that presents the work and latest achievements of the
linguists who work in these fields at the universities in North
America with international contributions, especially from Japan and
South Korea. In the tradition of the Japanese/Korean Linguistics
series different papers often appear typographically different
(different fonts, sizes, alignment). Although they make the book look
somewhat uneven, these feature actually contribute to the perception
that the reader receives visual correspondences to the distinct voices
of the individual contributors. This is an accessible and readable
book that is highly recommendable for students and researchers,
especially from other regions of the world, who want to keep up with
the newest developments and enquiries in the scientific study of two
important East Asian languages, Japanese and Korean.


Chang Suk-Jin. 1994. Thonghap Mwunqpeplon [Unified Grammar Theory].
Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

Jacobsen, Wesley M. 1999. Aspects of hypothetical meaning in Japanese
conditionals. Function and Structure, ed. A. Kamio and T. Takami, 83-
122. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McCawley, James D. 1968. The Phonological Component of a Grammar of
Japanese. The Hague: Mouton.

O'Grady, William. 1991. Categories and Case: The Sentence Structure of
Korean. Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Sells, Peter. 1995. Korean and Japanese Morphology from a Lexical
Perspective. Linguistic Inquiry 26, 277-325.

Sugioka, Yoko. 1984. Interaction of Derivational Morphology and Syntax
in Japanese and English. PhD dissertation, U. Chicago. (Reprinted:
Garland, 1986).


Spas Rangelov is a postgraduate research student at the School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London. His research
interests include Korean and Japanese linguistics, general
linguistics, morphological theory, foreign-language teaching.


If you buy this book please tell the publisher or author
that you saw it reviewed on the LINGUIST list.

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