17.1055, Review: Typology: Haspelmath, Dryer, Gil & Comrie (2005)

Fri Apr 7 23:51:07 UTC 2006

LINGUIST List: Vol-17-1055. Fri Apr 07 2006. ISSN: 1068 - 4875.

Subject: 17.1055, Review: Typology: Haspelmath, Dryer, Gil & Comrie  (2005)

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Date: 31-Mar-2006
From: Mark Donohue < mark at donohue.cc >
Subject: The World Atlas of Language Structures 

-------------------------Message 1 ---------------------------------- 
Date: Fri, 07 Apr 2006 19:46:20
From: Mark Donohue < mark at donohue.cc >
Subject: The World Atlas of Language Structures 

Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/16/16-3425.html 

EDITORS: Haspelmath, Martin; Dryer, Matthew S.; Gil, David; Comrie, 
TITLE: The World Atlas of Language Structures
PUBLISHER: Oxford University Press
YEAR: 2005

Mark Donohue, Monash University and National University of 


The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) is a lot of fun. Before 
anything else, that needs to be said. Addictively much fun. Beware! 
This is not simply because of the interesting subject matter that it 
deals with, but also because of the inclusion of a CD-ROM version of 
the atlas; though calling the CD a 'version' of the atlas is unfair, and it 
would be more accurate to call the large atlas a version of the CD-
ROM. But more on the specifics of the CD-ROM later.

WALS is an ambitious undertaking, and represents the first realisation 
of a research program that will, no doubt, change the way we do 
linguistics. This is the first attempt to map a large number of linguistic 
features (142 different features, ranging from the phonetic, 
phonological, morphological to the lexical and the paralinguistic) found 
in a large number of languages (the core sample is 200 languages; see 
for the list). Nichols (1992) is the only comparable published work 
in terms of aims and scope, and that deals with 174 languages, and 
10 multivalued linguistic features, all morphological. To say that WALS 
significantly increases the degree to which linguists are exposed to 
typological mapping is to make a great understatement.

The four editors coordinated the work of 54 chapter authors, each of 
whom produced a map (or maps) with an explanatory mini-chapter 
describing one aspect of linguistic structure (see the end of this review 
for the full list). The choice of which features were included on the 
maps is one that cannot, of course, satisfy everyone, though I must 
admit I did find most of my reasonable hopes fulfilled. (I have a number 
of unreasonable hopes, the lack of fulfillment of which I do not 
begrudge the editors.) A full list of the (sometimes multivalued) 
features included in the atlas can be found at the end of this review.

On the other hand, the presence of some of the maps that made it into 
WALS confuses me. Why was the presence of an affricate or a plain 
stop as the onset in the word for 'tea' deemed map-worthy? If we 
really wanted to know, we could, as the author of the map admits he 
did in many (most?) cases, got to http://www.travlang.com and look up 
the word. The map plots the lexemes used for 'tea' in 230 languages, 
arranging them by stop-initial 'tea'-like words, affricate-initial 'cha'-like 
words, and others, attributing the stop-initial versions to an ultimate 
Min origin in China (the author mentions Amoy as the origin of the 
etymon, but curiously does not include a language reference from this 
area, the closest being found on Taiwan. The absence of any attempt 
to indicate intermediate loci of diffusion, and the astonishing lack of 
analysis of many of the forms found in languages. For example, 
Soninke _dute_ is listed as one of the 'others' (not derivable 
from 'Sinitic _cha_' or 'Min Nan Chinese _te55_' (_te55_ is a Chaozhou 
[=Teochew] form; why it, and not an Amoy form, is cited is left 
unexplained). The most cursory analysis would reveal a French 
etymology for the Soninke word (<_du thée_), entirely plausible given 
the colonial history of Mali. Similarly Hawaiian _kii_ is given as 
an 'other', ignoring the well-known *k > t sound change that has 
applied in Hawaiian, revealing a minimally-changed English loanword. 
The author notes that in English some dialects preserve a form 
spelled as 'tay', reflecting an 'older' pronunciation; but why not also 
mention northern English 'char', as in char-lady, reflecting the 
alternative non-Min etymology and not particularly hard to find out 

The reasons for the inclusion of this particular piece of 'language 
structure' with this lack of analysis can only be known to the editors. 
Another issue I have with the editing is the lack of consistency 
between chapters; this is hailed as a sign of the vitality of the atlas 
('no attempt was made to make chapters by different authors that 
overlap in their features consistent' - from the Introduction), but to this 
reviewer it feels more like a lack of editorial authority: what, other than 
deciding on the languages and language features, was the role of the 
editors, if not to ensure consistency across different chapters?

To answer my own question, another role that I would assume fell to 
the editors was one of language selection, and typological 
representation. The core set of languages chosen clearly reflects 
careful thought, and is a set of languages that shows both areal and 
genetic diversity (it is, however, remarkably hard to make a map of all 
and only these 200 languages).

Many of the maps, however, clearly do not reflect adherence to the 
WALS list of core languages at all, and are simply the authors' own 
private databases made into publishable form. The maps of colour 
terms, for instance, show no evidence of having consulted publicly-
available dictionaries or lexicons of the languages in the sample, and 
as such does not contain enough information to really justify two 
foolscap pages of mapping: there simply isn't enough information (119 
languages) to be able to make areal judgements (there are, for 
instance, five entries for all of Australia, and three for all of mainland 
east Asia [Mandarin, Korean and Japanese]). Here, too, there has 
been no attempt to enforce the language 'minimum' (for more on the 
number of languages represented, see below).

Most of the features are, however, the types of things that linguists 
deal with every day: unusual consonants, size of the vowel inventory, 
alignment (of 'full' NPs or pronouns), word order, demonstrative 
contrasts, etc.). What is there to be gained by displaying these 
features on a map? To answer this question, and to fully appreciate 
WALS it is necessary to 'try it out'; short of purchasing it and poring 
over it for days, interested readers can examine some samples pages 
and maps on the Max Planck website (http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/files/wals.html). 
This doesn't let you appreciate how useful it can be to correlate a 
pair of features, which you have customised into the values that you 
want, and spot the patterns (this is possible with the CD). It does, 
however, allow you to see the wealth of information that some of the 
'fuller' maps contain. And, more to the point, it allows you to appreciate 
the geographical distribution of these features; a surprising number of 
linguistic features show strong areal or macro-areal tendencies, cutting 
across any genetic boundaries in their way. We have all known that there 
are linguistic areas (such as South Asia, the Balkans, North America's 
Pacific Northwest) in which languages converge towards a pan-
genetic norm; but with WALS we can see just _how_ prevalent areal 
clusterings are in the distribution of linguistic structure.

This is not a criticism of WALS directly, or even of typology specifically, 
but of any research that relies on secondary sources, and it is 
obvious. Any research that relies on secondary sources can only be 
as accurate as the reporting in the primary sources and as the 
interpretation that the secondary author has of those primary sources. 
As I said, this is obvious. The problems, however, are magnified when 
undertaking a project that aims to have a minimum of 200 languages 
on each of 142 maps.

The WALS organisers apparently recognised this, and requested of 
the primary source authors that they would be available to answer any 
questions of interpretation. This is an admirable safety measure, as 
anyone who has browsed through a grammar knows that the data one 
is looking for can sometimes be hard to find, can be spread out over 
different sections with only indifferent cross-referencing, or even 
completely absent. It can only be effective, however, if it is used. As 
one of the authors of a grammar on the 200-language core sample I 
was contacted less than a handful of times by a WALS author. This 
might reflect superb clarity in the Tukang Besi grammar (I can only 
hope), but the fact that Tukang Besi, a core language, is missing from 
7 maps shows that that isn't true. I cannot possibly examine the 
representation of every feature for every language in detail, so I will 
concentrate on a few areas for which I have expertise. Even taking 
into account the explanatory chapterettes, I took exception to the 
representation of Tukang Besi no less than 20 of the 142 maps, 14% 
of the total (the list can be found at [http://www.donohue.cc], then 
following the link to WALS). I do not know how well this reflects the 
accuracy of the maps as a whole; but I managed to find a large 
number of encoded decisions which I strongly disagreed with (some of 
which are mentioned at the end of this review). If we assume that 
approximately 10% of the information encoded is inaccurate, then the 
maps with small numbers of languages become highly 
unrepresentative, and even the larger maps need to be approached 
with caution.

Some of the maps abound in information; some do not. In general, 
those maps that have 300 languages or more look nicely 'full'; the 
occasional map that hits the 1,000 language mark (Dryer's maps of 
word order patterns) are especially satisfying (though I am not sure 
how a word order was assigned to many of the languages described 
as having free order of words in a clause, with no evidence for NP 
constituents; Warlpiri, for instance, has adjective-noun order, and 
Dyirbal is noun-adjective; how was this determined in the absence of 
NPs? Dryer (p371) mentions text counts as a determiner, siding with 
Greenberg for frequency (and against Dryer 1995; though note that the 
maps plot _dominant_ word order, and not basic word order), but in 
the Dyirbal text I checked there were no instances of modificational 
adjectives). On the other hand there are quite a few maps that have 
obvious gaps, and so are not representative. This is particularly 
apparent if you examine a small area of the world (the CD comes with 
built-in 'zooms' of Australia, the Caucasus, and Indonesia; it is simple 
to create your own default zoom areas). When you zoom to an area 
5000km long and find two dots,  you do not get a representative view 
of that feature in that part of the world. In some cases this lack reflects 
a genuine lack of carefully assembled data; and it might be that even 
the 200 language 'core' sample lacks easily findable information on a 
particular topic. On the other hand, it was for this very purpose that 
various language experts were contacted and asked if they would 
mind being questioned by some of the compilers. Similarly, there are 
some topics that are relatively easily researched (such as relative 
clauses) and which are not very satisfyingly represented.

The number of entries on a map of a particular feature varies wildly. 
As stated above, the authors attempted to include a 'core sample' of 
200 languages on every map, with authors encouraged to include 
other languages. Many maps do not meet the 200 language minimum 
target; this strikes this reviewer as an issue with which the editors 
should have engaged a little more firmly with the authors. On the other 
hand, other maps display over 1,000 different languages. The 
promotional material states that 'Each world map shows an average of 
400 languages'; this is true, but the median number of languages per 
map is 301. As anyone familiar with statistics knows, if the mean and 
the median differ radically, as is true here, it suggests that we are not 
dealing with one population. Indeed, most of the more 'full' maps are 
the work of three authors, Matthew Dryer, Ian Maddieson and Cecil 
Brown. If these authors' maps are excluded from the count we find the 
average and median both drop to 250 languages per map. This 
means that only just over half the maps have that 'full' look.

The interactive CD version of WALS was implemented by Hans-Jörg 
Bibiko, who deserves a huge thanks from the linguistics community. In 
a real sense the CD is the publication, and the large, hard-bound, 
attractive atlas is simply a by-product of the CD.

All the information necessary to produce the atlas can be found in the 
CD (with a couple of exceptions - the map for writing systems, for 
instance, is not available on the CD). Through the us of the CD the 
user is also capable of customising maps. This can apply to trivial 
things (You don't like that shade of brown? Change it to yellow! Fed 
up with little diamond figures on the map? Make them squares!), but it 
can also make for quite significant changes: You can't see the point in 
distinguishing between value 3 and value 4 in a map? Combine them! 
This allows you to simplify maps to display just the value, or cluster of 
values, that you want for a particular grammatical feature. But even 
more interestingly, it is possible to combine features together. For 
instance, if we are interested in OV versus VO order in main clauses, 
and wish to see if there are correlations with the presence of tone, we 
can create a map combining these two grammatical features, and 
plotting the intersection of the values for the relative clause feature 
with those of the word order feature. This will create a bewilderingly 
complex map; so we simplify it: not interested in languages with no 
dominant order in the clause? Take'em off. Not interested in the 
difference between 'pitch-accent' and 'full tone' languages? Combine 
them. Now we have an interpretable map (I made this map; in fact, I 
made several maps showing the intersection of various subsets of 

these features. You can look at them by going to 
http://www.donohue.cc, and following the WALS link). And we find 
that, of the 383 languages that meet the combined criteria, roughly 
half of the VO languages show tonal behaviour, while only one quarter 
of the OV languages show tone. Furthermore, VO languages with 
tones and OV languages with tone are generally adjacent (the 
exception being the OV tonal languages of New Guinea), implying that 
tone is an areal feature independent of the order of the verb and its 
object: there is no correlation between the order of a verb and its 
object with the presence of tone.

ANY of the features in WALS can be so combined (though only two 
features at a time, in the current version). This allows for us to check 
both the possible, but silly combinations (tone and verb-object order) 
and some of the sensible ones (tone and syllable structure, for 
instance). And who knows? With enough people trying enough 'silly' 
combinations, we might well learn about which ones are sensible, and 
might well be surprised. One disadvantage of the compiling feature is 
the fact that, as mentioned before, commonality between languages 
plotted on different maps is elusive. As a result, there is only a small 
set of languages that are guaranteed to be shared between two 
maps, with the subsequent result that maps of combinations can yield 
very small outputs, unless you make sure you only take the numerous-
language maps as your inputs.

Nonetheless, the CD is wonderful. The ability to zoom into small 
areas, to select exactly which features you want to view, and how to 
view them, is likely to be the cause of many missed deadlines (and 
hopefully several new and intriguing discoveries). The CD should, 
ideally, be marketed as a separate teaching tool. The amount that can 
be taught through the hands-on use of this software, about typology 
and the distribution of language patterns across the world, is 
immense. Unfortunately the current all-inclusive price for the atlas + 
CD prohibits this.

Some other comments on the electronic WALS:
* Some menus insist on being in German; I have learned the words 
Schreibtisch, sichern, and something else (meaning, I 
gather, 'cancel'). Learning some German isn't a _terrible_ thing, but it 
is, shall we say, an unexpected and insistent bonus.
* The CD-ROM will not scale font sizes to screen; you should set your 
screen's resolution to a low value before working with WALS, unless 
your eyesight is both very good, and unstrainable.
* The _topology_ and _ocean_ map option features are not 
independent of each other; something's not working.
* Some important geographic features are missing - the Sepik river 
does not appear, for instance.
* When using the language-name-on-scroll-over with a map that 
employs expanded language dots, the scroll-over applies over an 
area much, much greater than the dot.
* 'right click for editing' ?? - what does this mean for a Macintosh user?
* I have found exactly one typo, which is a pretty remarkable 
achievement. In the CD version, if you take 'the tour' (a demonstrative 
user guide) you come across one point where you see 'five differnet 
* On the CD, long strings of words are cut off from the map legend 
when using the feature composer and collapsing distinctions between 
different values of a feature (for instance, examining syllable types 
and the size of a consonant inventory, I created 'Complex AND Small 
OR Moderately small OR Average', which fits into the space allotted 
for a map legend, but nothing longer will.


Some of the genetic affiliations used in the classification are 
controversial, though none are ones that are reviled by reasonable 
linguists. Examples of these include 'Australian' and 'Trans New 
Guinea', used with various degrees of acceptance 

The dot indicating the position of Ekari (a western New Guinea 
language) is a long way to the west of where I would have placed it. 
Nara (in Ethiopia) appears to be in Eritrea on the maps. Kiwai is a lot 
further north than I would have expected. Mangap-Mbula is not 
spoken in the Vitiaz straits, as appears on the maps.

Is there a gender distinction in 3sg pronouns in Mandarin? In the 
written form, yes, but both are pronounced [tha]. If we want to go by 
written forms it is also true that subtitles in Mandarin have a gender 
distinction for 2sg as well. This subtitling distinction of feminine and 
non-feminine has not spread to other writing domains as yet, but it 
does exist. Are we deliberately excluding subtitling from our 
considerations? It seems so, but on what reasoned grounds. And, 
since most of the languages in the world lack (self-innovated) writing 
systems, surely we should look at speech when comparing things?

The voiced stops in Thai are at least partly implosive, and minimally 
deserve comment, if not necessarily coding as part of the set of 
glottalised consonants.

I have documented a large number of what I consider to be coding 
errors in WALS; I have conducted an exhaustive check of the codings 
for Tukang Besi, and, as mentioned earlier, found that there is a 14% 
error rate in the coding of the data. A list of the coding decisions I 
disagree with, stated briefly, can be found at [http://www.donohue.cc], 
and then following the WALS link. I have, along the way, compiled a 
list of my objections to the coding decisions made for other languages, 
necessarily less complete and with less authority, but nonetheless with 
a significant number of entries. These examples, too, are available 

I tend towards being a perfectionist, and so I have picked at the flaws 
which appeared to me to be most salient in WALS - and they are not 
insignificant. But we should remember that this is the first edition of the 
first volume heralding a whole new research program: patience! This 
is something that is different enough that we should be 
accommodating of some teething problems.

Can you ignore the WALS? No. Can you believe it as it stands? In 
broad outline, yes; but for the details, no. The WALS maps have the 
feel of the first release of a Microsoft product: useful, colourful, rather 
exciting, but basically being beta-tested on the paying public. Knowing 
how to interpret these broad outlines is also something that linguists 
are not, in the main, well-trained in, and the experience of critically 
assessing these data will be useful. Good linguists make a career out 
of learning to interpret data, and carefully checking their sources. 
WALS is not a shortcut that allows you to avoid that, but it certainly 
enables a person to very quickly know which data to steer towards. 

What's the bottom line on WALS, as I see it? I've had access to a copy 
for 6 weeks now, and it _has_ changed the way I think of, and do, 
linguistics, in a good way. I am currently writing an article that has 
changed dramatically as a result of my access to WALS. Based on 
this, I have no hesitation in saying that everyone should have access 
to a copy of WALS. Should they rush out and buy it right now? 
Contradictorily, no. There are enough easily-fixed mistakes and 
omissions in the current version of WALS that a second edition should 
be a quite marked improvement on the current first edition, and should 
be available without too much delay. In effect, the current version of 
WALS is being beta-tested on the wider audience. Should everyone 
encourage their libraries to get a copy now? Without hesitation of 
qualm of any kind, yes. This is a hold-in-your-hands demonstration of 
a methodology that has been growing (see, for example, Bickel and 
Nichols 2002), and is now available to be examined by anyone. This is 
world-wide typology waiting to happen without having to own, or even 
borrow, hundreds of books. This is a very real chance to spot 
correlations between different linguistic features, between linguistic 
features and areas, and between linguistic features and language 
families. And, to return to the start of this review: it's a _lot_ of fun.


Bickel, Balthasar, and Nichols, Johanna. 2002ff. The Autotyp research 

Dryer, Matthew S. 1995. Frequency and pragmatically unmarked word 
order. In Pamela Downing and Michael Noonan, eds., Word order in 
discourse: 105-135. Typological Studies in Language 30. Amsterdam: 
John Benjamins.

Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic diversity in space and time. 
University of Chicago Press. 


Mark Donohue is primarily a syntactician, but is also very interested in 
modelling tone and epenthesis, as well as the work and methodology 
of historical linguistics. Initially working on languages and language 
relationships in Southeast Sulawesi, he has also investigated 
Austronesian languages from Flores and northern New Guinea, as 
well as working on non-Austronesian languages of the Timor-Alor-
Pantar group, the Western Ok and Kwerba families, the Dani family, 
the Skou family, the West-Papuan family and the Torricelli family. The 
languages he has worked on all share the property of being on the 
very edge of a genetic unit or units: they show the effects of language 
contact and unusual grammaticalisation. Mark has published a 
grammar of Tukang Besi and sketches of Warembori and I'saka, and 
is currently preparing a grammar of Skou and a formal grammar of 
Tukang Besi. When he finds the time, he intends to finish his 
monograph on the use of lexical transitivity patterns as a comparative 


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kar lok Leung
Karen Corrigan
Kate Paesani
Katherine Appleby
Kathleen M. Ward
Keith Slater
Kevin Burrows
Kristin Denham
Larry LaFond
Laura Downing
Laura McGarrity
Laurie Zaring
Lee Fullerton
Linguistica Occitana (www.revistadoc.org)
Linnaea Stockall
Lisa Davidson
Lisa Galvin
Lise Menn
Ljiljana Progovac
Luis Vicente
M Lynne Murphy
Maite Taboada
Margaret Dunham
Maria Iliescu
Mark Donohue
Mary Swift
Mary Zdrojkowski
Marya Teutsch-Dwyer
Mathias Schulze
Matthias Heinz
Michael Becker
Michael Cahill
Michael Lessard-Clouston
Michael Wagner
Mira Ariel
Nancy Frishberg
Nancy Niedzielski
Nancy Stenson
Nancy Underwood
Naomi Fox
Nicole Dehe
Nobuko Koyama-Murakami
Oliver Stegen
Patricia Cabredo Hofherr
Patricia Donaher
Peter Richtsmeier
Pier Marco Bertinetto
Raffaella Folli
Regina Morin
Ricardo etxepare
Rick Nouwen
Robert Englebretson
Robert Hagiwara
Robert Williams
Roberta D'Alessandro
Robin Shoaps
Roderick A. Jacobs
Rodrigo Gutiérrez-Bravo
Roland Pfau
Sarah Fish
Scott Jackson
Scott McGinnis
Seizi Iwata
Shamila Naidoo
Stanley Dubinsky
Student Linguistics Asso, the Ohio State University
Susan Fiksdal
Susan Windisch Brown
Susannah Levi
Susanne Gahl
Sven Grawunder
Taibi NOUR
Theresa Biberauer
Thor Sigurd Nilsen
Tom Roeper
Tom Zurinskas
Trudy Smoke
Veronika Koller
Virginia LoCastro
Wim Vandenbussche
Wolfgang J. Meyer
Yael Sharvit
Yoonjung Kang

- Plus 5 anonymous donors
DONORS (Up to $50)

Adam Buchwald 
Adrienne Bruyn 
Agnes Sandor 
Albert Ortmann 
Amina Mettouchi 
Andrea Berez 
Andrew Koontz-Garboden 
Anja Steinlen 
Ann Sawyer 
Anne Reboul 
Anne-Michelle Tessier 
Anubha Kothari 
Barbara Zurer Pearson 
Betty Phillips 
Bonny Sands 
Brook Danielle Lillehaugen 
Catharine Vollmer 
Catherine Fortin 
Cathryn Donohue 
Catie Berkenfield 
Chris Sams 
Christel de Bruijn 
Christopher Becker 
David Gaatone 
David Goss-Grubbs 
David Oshima 
Della Chambless 
Diana Apoussidou 
Dimitrios Ntelitheos 
Dipika Mukherjee 
Donald F. Reindl 
Donna Cromer 
Douglas Ball 
E. Allyn Smith 
Eileen Smith 
Elena Battaner-Moro 
Erik Willis 
Fay Wouk 
Feride Erku 
Galit W. Sassoon 
George Williams 
Hans Lindquist 
Harry Feldman 
Hedde Zeijlstra 
Heidi Lorimor 
Heike Zinsmeister 
Helen Stickney 
Isabel Perez Jimenez y Norberto Moreno Quiben 
Istvan Kecskes 
Jacqueline Lecarme 
Jacques Jayez 
Janet M. Smith 
Janice Boynton 
Janneke ter Beek 
Jason Whitt 
Jean-Marc Dewaele 
Jenifer Larson-Hall 
Jesse Mortelmans 
Joanna Lowenstein 
John Beavers 
Jon Brennan 
Jonathan Glenn 
Jorge E Porras 
Josep Alba 
Joshua Viau 
Joyce Milambiling 
Judith Pine 
Judith Tonhauser 
Julie Bruch 
Karl Reinhardt 
Kat Dziwirek 
katherine martinez 
Katja Jasinskaja 
Keir Moulton 
Keira Gebbie Ballantyne 
Kent Johnson 
Kevin Bretonnel Cohen 
Koscielecki Marek 
Laurie Poulson 
Lawrence Rosenwald 
Lilia Ruiz Debbe 
Linda Apse 
Lise Dobrin 
Lotus Goldberg 
Lynsey Wolter 
M Victoria Vazquez Rozas 
Magnús Snædal 
Maher Awad 
Mai Kuha 
Marek Koscielecki 
Margot Rozendaal 
Marian Sloboda 
Marisol del-Teso-Craviotto 
Martin Warin 
Mary C. Gruber 
Mary Paster 
Maurice Wong 
Max Wheeler 
Mayrene Bentley 
Michael Barrie 
Michael Maxwell 
Michael Pickering 
Michelle Fullwood 
Miguel Ayerbe 
Mike Matloff 
Mohammad Haji-Abdolhosseini 
Mohammad Jaber 
Nancy Melucci 
Nancy Stern 
Nicholas Fleisher 
Olga Gurevich 
Pamela Jordan 
Peter Slomanson 
Pierre Francois Cintas 
Rachel Fournier 
Raffaella Zanuttini and Bob Frank 
Randall Gess 
Rebecca T. Cover 
Richard Winters 
Robert Port 
Ron Schaefer 
Ronald Schaefer 
Sadie Williams 
Sandra W. Smith 
Sebastian Rasinger 
Sergio Baauw 
Sherril Condon 
Shih-Jen Huang 
Shlomo Izre'el 
Simona Herdan 
Sonya Bird 
Stefan Dollinger 
Stefan Frisch 
Steven Hartman-Keiser 
Sumayya Racy 
Susan D Fischer 
Suzanne Aalberse 
Suzanne K. Hilgendorf 
Suzette Haden Elgin 
Tamina Stephenson 
Tania  Zamuner 
Thera Crane 
Theres Grueter 
Tomohiro Yanagi 
Ute Smit 
V J Fedson 
Valeria Quochi 
Vera Demberg 
Vivienne Rogers 
Walcir Cardoso 
Will Fitzgerald 
Winifred Davies 
Xose Luis Regueira-Fernandez 
Yosuke Sato 
Yuri & Mio Backhaus 

- Plus 25 anonymous donors


Blackwell Publishing 
Cambridge University Press 
Cascadilla Press 
Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd 
Edinburgh University Press 
European Language Resources Association 
Georgetown University Press 
Hodder Arnold 
John Benjamins 
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 
Lincom GmbH 
MIT Press 
Mouton de Gruyter 
Multilingual Matters 
Oxford University Press 
Palgrave Macmillan 
Routledge (Taylor and Francis) 

Anthropological Linguistics 
CSLI Publications 
Graduate Linguistic Students' Assoc.   Umass 
International Pragmatics Assoc. 
Kingston Press Ltd 
Linguistic Assoc. of Finland 
MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 
Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics / Landelijke 
Pacific Linguistics 
SIL International 
St. Jerome Publishing Ltd. 
Utrecht institute of Linguistics 



Aptima, Inc. 
Arizona State University 
Bilkent University 
Birkbeck, University of London 
Bucknell University 
CACI International Inc. 
City University of Hong Kong 
Concordia University 
Dublin City University 
EML Research gGmbH 
European Academy Bozen/Bolzano 
European Bioinformatics Institute 
European Science Foundation ESF 
Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc. 
Gallaudet University 
Georgetown University 
H5 Technologies 
Harvard University Institute of English Language 
International Linguistic Association 
Janya Inc. 
Language Analysis Systems, Inc. 
Lund University 
McGill University 
Michigan State University 
Microsoft Corporation 
National Security Agency 
National Tsing Hua University 
North-West University 
Northeastern Illinois University 
Northwestern University 
OFAI - Austrian Research Inst. for AI 
Priberam Informática 
Simon Fraser University 
Stanford University 
Swarthmore College 
SYSTRAN Software Inc. 
Szanca Solutions, Inc. 
Thomson Legal & Regulatory 
Tufts University 
Universitaet Konstanz 
Universitaet Leipzig 
University of Alberta 
University of British Columbia 
University of Calgary 
University of Cambridge 
University of Chicago 
University of Cincinnati 
University of Cyprus 
University of Edinburgh 
University of Florida 
University of Fribourg, Suisse 
University of Geneva - ETI 
University of Goettingen 
University of Hamburg 
University of Heidelberg 
University of Helsinki 
University of Illinois 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 
University of Konstanz 
University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 
University of Leipzig 
University of Maryland 
University of Maryland, College Park 
University of Melbourne 
University of Michigan 
University of Oregon 
University of Oslo 
University of Pittsburgh 
University of Potsdam 
University of Reading 
University of Rochester 
University of Southampton 
University of Southern Denmark 
University of Stuttgart 
University of Texas at Austin 
University of Victoria 
Universität Tübingen 
Université de Neuchâtel 
Université du Québec à Montréal 
Voice Signal Technologies 
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

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