More on Omaha-Ponca =daN=shte and =daN=shte=aN
Koontz John E
John.Koontz at colorado.edu
Mon Oct 23 05:44:41 UTC 2000
Use of =shte with various forms of 'what'
Kki eda'daN=shteshte i'wima'ghe
And whatever (specific) I asked you about
whatever (nonspecific) so,
thana'?aN=b=azhi, kHage', a'=bi=ama
you have not heard it, o younger brother, he said (they say)
11 JOD 1890:39.16
You have heard nothing like that?, o younger brother, he said (they say).
Wu! Da'daN=shte pi'azhizhi=xci thatHa=i e=d=uehe a'haN,
Wu! what really bad they eat it I go with them EXCLm
he said (they say)
11 JOD 1890:71.5-6
"Whoa! I am hanging out with those who eat disgusting things!",
he said (they say).
Constuctions with =daN=shte=aN
Nisi=ha! Uga'shaN=ga! Aba?a=daN, wathitaN=daN=shte= aN=ga!
My child! Travel IMPm Hunt CONTINGENT work CONTINGENT do IMPm!
11 JOD 1890:189.1-2
"My child! Travel! Hunt or else work perhaps!"
Witu'shpa, makaN' i'dhappahaN=daN=shte=maN a'dhiNhe
Grandhild, medicine I know it "DUBITATIVE SIGN" I move
she said (they say)
11 JOD 1890:36.13
"Grandchild, I may have some small knowledge of medicine," she said,
A sunken place perhaps
11 JOD 1890:345.9
GaN' ni'ashiNga (PaNka) pe'thabthiN shaNka=daN=shte=aN t?e=watha=i
And man Ponca eight nine perhaps he killed them
11 JOD 1890:370.1
And he killed perhaps eight or nine Ponca men ...
>>From the preceding examples I deduce a lexicalized sequence of enclitics
=daN=shte=aN, of which the latter is inflected in the right contexts,
signifying something like "perhaps this ..." with respect to the preceding
phrase and opposed optionally to a phrase preceding that with the sense
"perhaps that ...". This former phrase can be unmarked, especially if a
number, or marked with =daN, if a verb. "Perhaps ... or ..." is a
reasonable English translation with two terms.
I wouldn't care to identify the sequence =daN=shte(shte) that occurs at
the end of 'what' when =shte(shte) follows as an instance of this
lexicalized sequence, but I do think that the constituents =daN and =shte
are the same, and that the relationships of the meanings are clear.
I suppose we can think of =shte 'soever' as a sort of operator that
emphasizes that the preceding element ranges potentially over a whole
class of objects in reference rather than referring to some particular
thing. Thus, it in some degree produces the sense 'something/anything
(soever)' as opposed to 'what (particular thing)'. However, it doesn't do
anything so simple as changing 'what' to 'something' in a question.
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