Language Preservation

B. K. Rana bk_rana at YAHOO.COM
Thu Mar 3 16:59:31 UTC 2005

VYAKARAN: South Asian Languages and Linguistics Net
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-         B.  K. Rana


               The Himalayan kingdom of Nepal is one of the linguistically diverse countries in South Asia and is a home for different peoples who speak different languages, adhere to different religions, practice different cultures and live in harmony forming distinct identities among themselves from the ages. Spoken as lingua franca by nearly 20 million people, Nepali is the first language of 48.61% of total population of 22,736,934 [2001] and also the national language of Nepal. Except for Burushaski, a language isolate which is still spoken north of Gilgit in Hunja, a remote part of northern Pakistan at the border of China; languages of the world�s major language families as: Indo-European, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan and Austro-Asiatic families are spoken in Nepal. There are at least three native speakers of Kusunda[1] which is a very unique language used to be spoken in the central hills of Nepal some 30 years ago.

               Nepali falls into Indo-European family of languages. It has much closer affinity with Hindi and Sanskrit. However, there are script differences between Hindi and Urdu, they also have much closer affinities. Hindi is spoken almost by half a billion people as their mother tongue in India only. Millions others speak either Hindi or Urdu both in India and Pakistan. These two major South Asian languages are spoken among the Indian population across South and East Africa. People in Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius and Fiji also speak Hindi.

               Some people who have migrated to USA, Canada and United Kingdom also speak either Hindi or Urdu. The Hindi-Urdu community comprises one of the largest speech communities in the world. Scholars as well as language activists of India are prescribing Hindi in a broader national context as well as global perspective to play a major role and assert the existence of Hindi as a world language.

               Likewise, a perceivable portion of speakers in Hong Kong, Burma and England speaks Nepali also. It is spoken by a larger mass of population in different provinces of India. It is therefore, the government of India has recognized Nepali as one of its 18 state languages, which is used in schools and in office materials also.  The recognition of Nepali as an official language in 1988 by the government of India was a major event for Nepalese linguistic communities to assert their linguistic rights. In this paper I will attempt to offer some insights into recent linguistic dynamism in Nepal from South Asian perspective where language communities are asserting their linguistic and cultural rights for development.  Language issue has been one of the vital issues since a couple of decades in Nepal.

Growth of Nepali as National Language amongst Linguistic Diversity

               Along with the rise of Gorkha Kingdom[2] in 1768, the state had to promote Hindu Culture and Nepali Language to unify the country with a policy of one language and one culture. National policy as such could have relative importance in those days. It could ease the process of unification of scattered small principalities into a greater sovereign nation. Nepal has always remained an independent nation in South Asia. Since the founding of Gorkha Kingdom, Nepali has become the national language of Nepal and general identity of Nepalese people. There is a vast literary treasure in Nepali - government papers, educational materials, newspapers etc. are published in Nepali language.

               It is still a matter of discussion as to how many languages are spoken in Nepal. Since, linguistic survey of Nepal has not been carried out until today, only it was lightly discussed by academic circles a couple of years ago; nothing can be said on how many languages are spoken in Nepal. Language data tend to differ from one entity to another and an author to another. As many as 48 different languages have been enumerated in the population census report of 1991. The National Language Policy Advisory Commission [1993] in its report mentions that there are 70 different languages in Nepal of whom 20 are the endangered ones. The report also cites Kusunda as a dead language. But, a number of 87 Kusundas [males 37 females 50] have been reported speaking Kusunda as their first language in the recent national population census report.  According to the population census report [2001] there are 99 different caste, ethnic and two other unidentified groups of peoples who!
  speak 93
 different languages as their mother tongues in Nepal. An Ethnologue report [2000] is that there are 128 different languages in Nepal.

               In Nepal the larger number of different languages falls in Sino-Tibetan language family. The speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages are mostly indigenous by their origin. They are remotely settled, fewer in number, economically disadvantaged, socio-politically weaker and unrepresented or under represented to the national life. Situation as such has led to an intense language endangerment in Nepal. After the restoration of democracy in 1990 and also by the concerns of United Nations about the indigenous peoples in the world, different language communities in Nepal have begun to preserve their languages. They have even begun to develop their own scripts, vocabulary, dictionary, grammar and literature etc.

Establishment of Mahendra Sanskrit University for Revival of Sanskrit language

To preserve and promote Sanskrit education in different sectors of Nepalese society and also develop the Kingdom of Nepal into a center for teaching and learning through Sanskrit, the government of Nepal established Mahendra Sanskrit University in December 1986. The university was opened amidst a sharp decline in Sanskrit language in the country. No speaker of Sanskrit has been enumerated in national population census reports. This is an indication that Sanskrit is not spoken as the first language in Nepal. Indeed the great teachings of Rshi Munis[3] of the early centuries, possibly even before the Greeks, are inscribed in Sanskrit language. The Vedas, Upanishads, Smritis, and the much loved philosophy by Hindus � the Bhagbat Gita etc. are written in Sanskrit. Whether Sanskrit is spoken by its speakers or not it has an immense impact upon not only Nepalese social life but upon the much greater mass of population in India also.

The greatness of  Sanskrit language is unquestionable, however, in recent decades, it has faced sharp criticism from among the indigenous language communities of Nepal. These communities have designated Sanskrit as a dead language. They blame the government to have wasted wealth over a �dead language� and standing unresponsive towards the demands of language communities to preserve their �living languages�. There is a kind of tug-of-war between two groups of intellectuals who either favor the promotion of  Sanskrit language or other indigenous languages. Sometimes Sanskrit is made compulsory subject in schools and sometimes optional, depending on what type of government is functioning in the country. However, Sanskrit is not spoken as the first language by the general public; it is not a dead language. There is an ample opportunity for Sanskrit to become revitalized as native language of certain group of people in the country. It is like English, which is also not spoken as !
 the first
 language in Nepal.

Indigenous Peoples� Movement for Linguistic and Cultural Rights

               The indigenous ethnic peoples are nowadays known as Janajatis[4] of Nepal. Before the restoration of democracy in 1990, right to freedom of speech or expression was unavailable in the country. Naturally in those days, it was very difficult in founding a social organization that could spell out fundamental rights of the people. However, Padma Ratna Tuladhar had been able to found �Nepal Bhasha Manka Khala� - an organization for the preservation and promotion of Newar[5] language and culture in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal and other two activists Suresh Ale and Parshu Ram Tamang had also started underground-advocacy for linguistic and cultural rights by forming �Nepal Langhali Association� from among the Magars[6] and �Nepal Tamang Ghedung� - an organization of the Tamangs[7] respectively in the mid-seventies. Parshu Ram Tamang could present Nepal�s indigenous peoples� issues to the outer world including the United Nations� different forums in recent tim!

               As soon as democracy was restored in the country, these three indigenous peoples� advocates together with other five indigenous peoples� organizations became able to found an organization - �Nepal Federation of Nationalities�[8] in mid 1990 and Suresh Ale was elected  Secretary-General of the newly founded federation. This was a landmark achievement in the indigenous peoples� movement of Nepal. The federation vigorously publicized and lobbied for inclusion of linguistic and cultural rights of indigenous peoples in the Constitution, which was being drafted  by a commission formed by the government of Nepal. As a result of which some of the recommendations from indigenous peoples� sector have been incorporated in the constitution.

               After the restoration of democracy and also the promulgation of Constitution of Nepal in November 1990 there was an open atmosphere in Nepalese academic community. Krishna Bahadur Bhattachan, began critical advocacy louder and clearer than ever before for social reforms in the country. Consulting with some other experts and activists, he classified 61 Janajatis of Nepal and also offered a definition for them. The government recognized only 58 Janajatis by enacting an act sometime later. However, Bhattachan�s arguments for social reforms have facts and foundations, the conservative school of Nepal, as anticipated, shows strong displeasure in them. Out of his enumeration, a number of 16 Janajatis[9] are not enumerated in the national population census report of 2001. The government population census report is not widely accepted in Nepal.

               Kamal Prakash Malla and Hark Gurung who were indulging themselves in scholarly creations before the restoration of democracy have also published a number of polished works in favor of language communities of Nepal. Gore Bahadur Khapangi has an outstanding record of reaching the outposts and speaking for the rights of indigenous peoples in the country. This tireless advocate for social change in Nepal has made a significant contribution to the preservation and development of endangered language communities in Nepal at a time when many of the world�s precious languages are vanishing day by day.

Constitutional Provisions

               After the restoration of democracy in 1990, Nepalese society has undergone lots of unprecedented changes. The Untied Nations� concerns about the indigenous peoples� rights and subsequent declaration of International Decade of the World�s Indigenous People [1995-2004] have been remarkable in the effort of preserving Indigenous peoples� cultural heritage across the globe. Nepal also received some kind of message from the declaration. Now, the government of Nepal has begun to preserve and promote indigenous as well as other languages and cultures across the country.

               In the Article 4 [1] of Constitution of Nepal [1990] it is stated that Nepal is a �multiethnic, multilingual, democratic, independent, indivisible, sovereign, Hindu, constitutional-monarchial� country. The constitution has accepted multiethnic and multilingual essence of the country but it is silent about a number of other religions and cultures of Nepal. Such a provision in the constitution has prompted indigenous people�s activists to demand constitutional amendment guaranteeing their religious rights also. The indigenous peoples in the country realize that they were converted into Hindu religion following the rise of Gorkha Kingdom. Previously, as they believe their ancestors had professed either Shamanism or Buddhism.

               Similarly, in another Article 6[1] of the constitution it is written that Nepali in Devanari script is the �nation language� of Nepal and hence official language of the country. But, in the same article 6[2] it is also stated that languages spoken as mother tongues in different parts of the country are Nepal�s �national languages�. This provision is to specify that �nation� and �national� languages have different constitutional status and relevance.  Article No. 18 of the constitution provides right to every linguistic as well as cultural communities to preserve their languages and cultures, to offer primary education in mother tongues. Another Article No. 26 of the constitution offers a wide range of directives for the preservation and promotion of languages and cultures of Nepal.  There has been some significant development in the area of language in compliance with the spirit of Constitution in recent years. Understandably, there are lots of other things le!
 ft to be
 done in the years to come.

Supreme Court Outlaws Use of Local languages in Local Governments

As guaranteed by the Constitution of the land, local autonomous bodies known as - local governments - like the Kathmandu Metropolitan City began using Newari as its additional official language from July 25, 1997. Following the metropolitan city, Dhanusha District Development Committee on November 18, 1997 and Rajbiraj Municipality on November 25, 1997 also respectively began using Maithili as their additional official language. The Supreme Court of Nepal issued an interim order to halt such usage and later on June 3, 2001 passed a verdict that the use of local languages in local governments is unconstitutional and unlawful.

The court does not give any ruling to cut the expenses on Sanskrit language, which does not have any single native speaker in Nepal. The Vedas and other Sanskrit scriptures are very highly revered by the lovers of Sanskrit. But, indigenous language communities do not pay much attention to them. The spirit of the Constitution and the Supreme Court verdict conflict together. They do not actually match. Therefore, to protest the event language communities of Nepal stage �Black Day� program on every June 3 in front of the Supreme Court of Nepal in Kathmandu. As the crux twisted other way round, consulting with other indigenous peoples� experts, activists, language communities and lawyers, Parshu Ram Tamang through Nepal Tamang Ghedung, drafted a public bill on Language Policy for the consideration in the Parliament of Nepal. It was registered in the House of Representatives of the Parliament at its 20th Session in mid-2001. Unfortunately, as the climax of political unrest in the!
 the house was dissolved prior to table for further discussion on the bill.

 Maoist Propaganda and Disadvantaged Communities

               The existing ethnic, linguistic and cultural differences among Nepalese peoples have made Nepal a country of rich diversity. The beautiful country with pristine natural beauty and diversity is now badly engulfed by unrelenting conflicts and has faced a number of serious challenges in her development. Once the peaceful and beautiful Himalayan country in the world Nepal has nowadays gone on the rampage. There is chaos everywhere. More than 12 thousand Nepalese have been killed and many others are unaccounted for during these years of conflicts. The Maoist insurgency surfaced from a monolingual rural part of western Nepal in 1996. The people of that part of the country cannot speak Nepali and also do not practice Hindu culture. The Maoists have a principal agenda of uprooting the monarchy and establishing radical communist. They have also made it public that they would offer right to self-determination or regional autonomy on the basis of origin, language and cul!
 ture of
 particular group of peoples, primarily of the disadvantaged section of peoples who form almost two-thirds[10] of total population of the country. Questions have been raised whether national sovereignty and unity of the country could be maintained with such an offer.

               The start of Maoists rebellion was declared from the profound support of Kham Magar language community of Thabang in Rolpa, western district of Nepal. The rebellion has spread all over crossing boarders of other language communities in the country. There are many monolingual communities in Nepal. To address to their need for change, language activists, started campaign for linguistic rights of the peoples. They also oppose Sanskrit education in the country - the reason being that Sanskrit is a classical language; its morpheme or rules of word formation, syntax structure, phonology, vocabulary, grammar etc. are very complex. An indigenous learner cannot even utter a single Sanskrit word. Understandably, such a person cannot compete with others to secure a position in the government.

               Nowadays, among the three senior activists who started linguistic and cultural issues, Suresh Ale is under arrest as the government found him becoming a top ranking Maoist leader. The other Padma Ratna Tuladhar is a believer of communist principles and a human right activist. Sometimes he endeavors to restore peace in the country. He was one of the mediators during the two failed dialogues between the government and the Maoist rebels. Without showing any inclination to whatever political agenda, an independent Parshu Ram Tamang currently chairs the Indigenous Peoples� Permanent Forum [IPPF] at the United Nations.

               The Maoist rebels are out there to abolish Sanskrit education and discard Hindu culture. They have forced many Sanskrit schools to close down. The government cannot stop them doing so. For quite a number of times Sanskrit examinations were cancelled as the Maoists entered examination hall and indiscriminately looted Sanskrit questions. This kind of opposition has been an on going affair in the country.  Contrarily, the government sometime does not hesitate to pronounce that it would make Sanskrit a compulsory subject in the country.

               There are some practical reasons behind the Maoists to become violent against Sanskrit education. Firstly, Sanskrit and Hindu culture go hand in hand together. One is always complementary to another. All Hindu scriptures, rituals etc. are written in Sanskrit language.  Also the king is revered as Vishnu, the preserver in the Hindu trinity. He adheres to Hindu religion. Without Hindu culture and tradition, a king cannot rule in Nepal. The Sankaracharya[11] of Kanchhi Kamkothi, India visits Kathmandu occasionally and the King goes to pay  him homage. This is how Sanskrit and Hindu King are amazingly intertwined together. Now both of them have become targets of radical Maoists rebels.

               But the indigenous language activists disapprove Sanskrit education because only students born to Brhaman family are entitled to receive this education free of charge. This system was introduced by the Rana regime that ruled Nepal for 104 years until its overthrow in 1951 and it is continuing despite criticisms. This sort of education has also resulted in the access to the national resources by mostly the Brahman caste groups whose total population percentage is 12.74 in the country. Since the Brahman population is so small obviously, the number of students there is also always small. The payroll expense is much bigger. This is unproductive and discrimination against other language communities. Further to it, English has been made compulsory subject up to graduate level in the Mahendra Sanskrit University colleges. The language activists do not find any solid to teach English in a Sanskrit school and charge it as ridiculous education system. But Sanskrit does !
 deserve preservation as it is one of the ancient languages of the world.

Languages Endangered as the Process of Globalization Accelerates

               As the process of globalization or Anglicization is in effect all over the world, Nepal cannot withstand it. The country has embraced English as another �essential language� since the emergence of British East India Company, a major force in the history of India for more than 200 years. Contrary to the foreign policy and tradition of Gorkha Kingdom, the Rana regime, until its overthrow in 1951, vastly relied on the British East India Company.

               English has been another language, which seems to be replacing Nepali itself. Essential official materials are prepared in English. It is a compulsory subject from primary to graduate levels of education. Most of the university or college education materials are in English language. The government has recently formulated a policy to replace education materials by publishing them in Nepali language. It is good for Nepali language. Language policy makers were fascinated by English literature. But, the other interesting thing to note is that a Nepali student will certainly not understand clearly poems like �Dover Beach� or �Lucy� etc. written by English poets, unless they have seen Dover Beach in English Channel or experienced snowy storm of Northern Hemisphere.

                Political leaders also prefer mixing up few bizarre English words while they speak at formal programs. They seem not to be keeping in mind whether the rural people could grasp what they speak out there. Doctors also write prescriptions in English language but they also don�t care whether patients can read and understand what medication they have been prescribed by the doctors.

               Everyone in urban areas prefers speaking English in Nepal. Nowadays, urbanite people mix up half English and half Nepali when they speak a sentence. The frequency modulation radios [FM Radios] announcers mix up nearly 75% English and 25% Nepali words and phrases while they speak aloud a sentence from radio microphones. Doing this they differentiate themselves from among other general public. Speaking English like this, young people feel they have attained an upper class social status, which is not true. English has become a popular language in Nepal but there is no constitutional provision for the official use of this language. The status of English language in not specified in the Constitution of 1990.

               The indigenous and other language communities are trapped in between Nepali and English languages. Both English and Nepali are posing like the killer languages in the country. In such condition preserving indigenous languages is a very hard job. Since the past two three decades Nepal has adopted a policy that education should be provided by private institutions also. As soon as this policy was adopted a wave of English schooling came over and touched remotest areas across the country. Everywhere, one could see signboards hanging that read �English Boarding School�. This may have some brighter aspects also as blocking national wealth from draining out to other countries in the name of better education. It also could produce some kind of manpower that the country needed there. But such education is much expensive therefore Maoists rebels began opposing this sort of schooling also. They have forced many English Boarding Schools to a complete closure. Everyone is !
 English language in Nepal. If no effective measures are applied on time, the overwhelming popularity of English language will one day certainly kill Nepali language also.

Recent Change and Development

Following the reasonable demands of language communities, the government radio airs news in 18 different languages[12] from different parts of the country. The national population census also reports that a number of 5473 peoples communicate in Nepali sign language. The state TV airs news for the Nepali sign language community also. These are the remarkable changes in recent times in Nepal.  Primary education is offered at least in 11 different mother tongues: Limbu, Tamang, Newari, Tharu, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bantawa Rai, Magar, Gurung and Sherpa. The ministry of education has, one month ago, published five different mother tongues[13] in one primer book for grade one students to reduce cost. This is also another remarkable achievement. Some mother tongue communities have begun to publish booklets, calendar, newspapers and pamphlets in their mother tongues. They have even started to offer language classes in recent times.

               Also there has been a noticeable change in King�s language also. The king has his own type of language like the �King�s English� in Britain. The royal family members of  Nepal are addressed  by the people with some specific words like: �maushuph�[he/him or she/her] �gari+baksyo� [did], gari+baksanechha [will do], sukala [sleep], bhuja [lunch or meal] jyunar [eat food], darshan+bhet [seeing, meeting] etc. These terms are only used if one has to address the royal family members. Before the restoration of democracy in 1990, general public, except for King�s relatives, were not entitled to use the King�s Nepali. Nowadays, general people in urban areas copy King�s Nepali and speak in it a kind of fashion. But there is restriction for the general public to formally or publicly  speak this language for themselves. Instead,  political leaders as well as others do not hesitate to address the king or the royal family members in general terms with media or others like: w!
 [him], garnu+bhayo [did], bhet [seeing, meeting]. But they must use the King�s Nepali when they are to speak in front of the king or any formal  programs.

               The capital city of Kathmandu, a hub for Nepalese peoples has undergone some language change in recent times. As the Maoist insurgency has intensified, people have no way other than to migrate to Kathmandu for safety. So, a strange language mix-up is taking place nowadays. For example people of eastern Nepal say �niska+nu�  [to enter ] whereas people in the west say niska+nu� [ to exit].  The latter say �pas+nu�  [to enter]. These two words are antonyms. The other noticeable usage is �bhyau+nu [to finish or complete a piece of work, affirmative], bhyau +daina� [can�t complete or finish, negative]. But  nowadays, this verb is widely used to mean �to become enough or less�. Let us check the  sentences below:

�Tyo kam bhya+nu� [you finish the job/work]. Generally  used by general public few years ago. But the  Kathmandu  people  now a days say  �Timro paisle bhyau +daina� [your money is not enough to buy it] etc.


            There has been an unprecedented linguistic dynamism in Nepal in recent times. It is the out come of  Nepal�s democratization in 1990 and the change that took place in Indian subcontinent also - for example the Gorkha Hill Council Movement in Darjeeling. The United Nations� preference for indigenous people�s issues provided an enormous energy to the language communities of Nepal also. The UN declaration of Indigenous Peoples� Decade [ 1995-2004] was another event that also influenced Nepal. But the country is in a political mess nowadays. The unrelenting conflicts have paralyzed the country. Therefore, on February 1, 2005 the King has taken over and formed a government under his leadership. As there is no democracy and King�s rule has prevailed in Nepal. � right to expression and the likes have also been curtailed drastically. Some people have welcomed the king�s move and some others have protested as well.

                During the king�s rule in the past, Nepal followed the policy of one language and one culture. So, in a democratic system peoples asserted their language rights. The Maoists radicals also exploited language issues of Nepal. It also became an important agenda for them. In the event of king�s direct rule, it is now widely feared that Rights Movement in Nepal will halt for sometime. The concerned language communities will also experience a setback. But, those communities will continue endeavoring to preserve their languages and somehow slow down the process of language death in the country.

Note: This paper has been prepared on my own experiences and observations. Therefore, I have not been able to cite references to it. Important dates and other data are provided on the footnotes.


[1]                   I could discover only three fluent Kusunda speakers in remote parts of western Nepal in the year of 2000. No other Kusunda speakers are reported to have been found until today. The government of Nepal has allocated some money for the preservation of Kusundas.

                    Some linguists regard Kusunda and Burushaski as language isolate. Divergent views have emerged on whether Kusunda is a language isolate. Analyzing some 150 years old data, which often have inaccuracies, some western linguists have recently classified Kusunda as Indo-Pacific language. This new classification cannot be accepted because it is not a complete study, which lacks information on recent development on Kusunda language. Only pronominal studies will not suffice. It is understandable that some linguists as well as anthropologists are out there to establish a theory that first human being evolved from Sub-Saharan Africa. Those scholars argue human beings evolved from Africa and migrated via Indian subcontinent to the Pacific region. Be it whatever, the recent classification of Kusunda as Indo-Pacific language is not accepted by other prominent linguists.

[2] �Gorkha Kingdom� also suggests the political process and development that happened in Nepal. The much-preferred name in the history of modern Nepal, King Prithivi Narayan Shah, fore father of the current king Gyanendra, annexed Kathmandu valley into Gorkha in 1768. At that time Kathmandu Valley was known as �Nepal�  and  Newari was its  language. King Prithivi  discarded  Newari , introduced �Gorkha language�, gave the kingdom another name �Nepal and made  Kathmandu capital of his kingdom. The king, Nepali language and Hindu culture are perceived as symbols of  national unity.

[3] Vedic Scholars [ sages]

[4] Indigenous ethnic peoples with their own mother tongues, traditions, distinct cultural attributes and social structures and who also do have written or unwritten histories are designated by law as Janajatis of Nepal.

[5] Newars are one of the most advanced indigenous peoples of Nepal. They form 5.48% of the total population of Nepal.

[6] Magars are the largest indigenous group by 7.14%. They are third largest population group after Chhetri [15.80%] and Hill Brahman [12.74 %] in Nepal. No individual caste/ethnic group is over 16.00% of total population in Nepal.

[7] Tamangs form third largest among indigenous population after Magar and Tharu [5.64%].

[8]  i) Nepal Langhali Sangh,  ii) Nepal Tamang Ghedung, iii) Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala, iv) Tamu Baudha Sewa Samii, v) Kirat Yakthung Chumlung, vi) Kirat Rai Sanskritic Sangh vii) Sunuwar Sewa Samaj viii] Sagarmatha Sewa Kendra (Sherpa Association) were the signatories of the federation in 1990.

[9] The 16  unmentioned Janajatis in the recent census report are  Kushbadiya, Chhairotan, Tangbe, Topke Gola, Thudam, Fri, Mugali, Lhopa, Surel, Dolpo, Teen Gaule Thakali, Bankaria, Barah Gaule, Marphali Thakali, Larke and Lhomi [Shinsawa].

 [10] In Nepal Janajati [indigenous peoples], Dalit [so called water untouchables] and Muslims are treated as disadvantaged section of peoples. They altogether form 63.44% of the total population of the country. It may be argued there are some others who also are economically disadvantaged.

S. No                      Group                                                                       Population   Percentage

1             Janajati  [so called lower caste]                                                                37.38%

2             Brahman, Chhetri and Others [so called upper-caste]                             36.56%

3              Dalit [so called water-untouchable]                                                        21.79%

4             Muslim                                                                                                     4.27%

Total                                                                                       100%

Source: His Majesty�s Government, Central Bureau of Statistics, National Population Census Report 2001 pp. 72-73.

[11]  The highest ranking Hindu  Guru [preacher /teacher]

[12] Radio Nepal airs news in Nepali, English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Newari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tamang, Abadhi, Tharu, Magar, Kham Magar, Gurung, Sherpa, Bantawa and Dotyali [Nepali dialect]

[13] Maithili, Awadhi, Tharu, Sherpa and Magar

"Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs at> wrote: Dear B.K.Rana,

Have you also considered distributing this via Vyakaran?

I've sent a notice about it to our lgpolicy-list.


On Thu, 3 Mar 2005, B. K. Rana wrote:

> Dear Prof. Harold F. Schiffman,
> I have been informed by Dr.Ostler from the Foundation for Endangered Languages, London about your program.
> I am also working on language preservation. Attached please find a paper on language dynamism in Nepal. If you could consider it for distribution as suggested
> I am looking forward to hearing from you.
> Sincerely yours,
> BK Rana
> Cambridge, MA
> Nicholas Ostler wrote:
> Dear BK
> Thanks for this paper, which I am finding fascinating. Have you
> considered offering it for distribution through Harold F. Schiffman's
> Language Policy list? He's on ,
> And is there any chance we can publish it in Ogmios? I think people
> will be interested in the indigenous language connexions of the Maoist
> guerrillas. And I'm fascinated by the provisions for Sanskrit in Nepal.
> Nicholas
> B. K. Rana wrote:
> > Dear Nicholas Ostler,
> >
> > Aap kaise hai ? Hope aap achhe hai. Attached please find my paper on
> > linguistic dynamism in South Asia.Language communities are preserving
> > their their languages in Nepal.
> >
> > I have been informed that an INGO is funding for developing mother
> > tongue education materials.
> >
> > Hope you will enjoy reading the paper.
> >
> > Thank you,
> > Rana
> >
> > __________________________________________________
> > Do You Yahoo!?
> > Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
> >
> >

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