Stick shoes and 2 Lushootseed dialects

David Robertson ddr11 at COLUMBIA.EDU
Thu Apr 6 17:58:08 UTC 2006

Thanks to T. Hess's class materials this semester, I see what look like two 
disguised borrowings from Chinook Jargon into Lushootseed.

It would be more accurate to call these "calques" or "loan translations".  
That's where a term from Language A gets assigned a word-for-word 
translation in Language B---even if the result doesn't make perfect sense 
in language B. (Short explanation.)

An example of a calque in English might be, well, "Stick Indian".  In 
Language A (Chinook Jargon) this has been documented as "stik sawash" 
meaning a "native of the backwoods".  Calqued into Language B (English) it 
sounds as if it should mean a "First Nations person who collects wood" or 
something like that. 

In the Lushootseed Salish language of Puget Sound, the two main dialect 
areas have separate words for "boot/shoe".  

NORTH:  qwLay7-SEd
SOUTH:  st'k'wab-SEd

Here, qwLay7 is the N Lushootseed word for "log".  In S Lushootseed, 
st'k'wab is the word for the same thing.

The ending -SEd means "foot" or by extension "shoe".

So we have what looks like a loan translation from Jargon in both 
dialects.  (CJ stik = "log", shoosh = "shoe".)  

Extra information: The Tulalip dialect is between N & S Lushootseed, in 
some respects.  In Tulalip they wound up using the Southern word, because 
these folks shopped at Fort Nisqually to the South.  North of Tulalip the 
Lushootseed speakers apparently shopped at Fort Langley, northward of them 
in Canada.  So you see history leaves traces in the language.

--Dave R

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