permissible IE roots?

Rick Mc Callister rmccalli at sunmuw1.MUW.Edu
Tue Dec 14 21:45:15 UTC 1999

	Gamkrelidze and Ivanov 1995: 120-22 give the following rules for IE
roots with stops (that is, if my notes are correct):
	1. No 2 consonants of the same order can occur in the same root
	2. Series II * III can't occur in the same root
	3. Series I & II almost never occur in the same root exceptions
include *bhak'- "share, portion, etc", *bhâk'o- "beech", *k^'egh- "branch"
(Germanic and Baltic only) [BUT *k^'egh- seems to violate rule 1]
	4. In roots C1VC2-, both consonants must have the same voicing
	They state that allowable roots are I + III, III + I, II + II, III
+ III and (extremely rare) I + II.
	Series I bilabial also appears to be disallowed
	Gamkrelidze and Ivanov [14]
	Stop series
I. glottalized			(p')	t'	k'
II. voiced (aspirated)		bh	dh	gh
III. unvoiced (aspirated)	ph	th	kh

	Looking through Watkins 1985, there seem to be some violations of
these rules.
	Watkins's stop series (traditional version) is as follows:
(although his table presents them in order II-I-III)
I	b	d	g	gw
II	p	t	k	kw
III	bh	dh	gh	gwh

	So, following G/I, the following should be allowed (using
traditional values):
I + III: dVbh, dVgh, dVgwh, gVbh, gVdh, gwVbh, gwVdh
III + I: bhVd, bhVgh, bhVgw, dhVg, dhVgw, ghVd, gwhVd
II + II: pVt, pVk, PVkw, tVp, tVk, tVkw, kVp, kVt, kwVp, kwVt
III + III: bhVdh, bhVgh, bhVgwh, dhVbh, dhVgh, dhVgwh, ghVbh, ghVdh,
gwhVbh, gwhVdh
I + II (rare): dVp, dVk, dVkw, gVp, gVt, gwVp, gwVt,
II + I (rare): pVd, pVg, pVgw, tVg, tVgw, kVd, kwVd

	problematic roots in Watkins: *ka:dh- "to shelter, cover", *kagh-
"to catch, seize", *kaghlo- "pebble, hail", *kak-1 "to enable, help",
*kekw- "to excrete",
	Does the addition of other consonants or velar/palatal differences
allow exceptions to G/I rules? e.g. *ghelegh- "type of metal", *kenk- with
other consonants, *kekw-, stembh-, steigh-

	In addition, Watkins has roots with /b/, disallowed by most
IE-ists, if what I read is correct. He includes the following roots with IE
*baba- onomatopoeic root
*badyo- "yellow, brown" (Western IE)
*bak- "staff, rod, wialking stick"
*bamb- onomatopoeic root
*band- "a drop"
*bel- "strong"
*bend- "protruding point" [see Gaelic beinn, see also Basque mendi- < *bendi]
*beu-1 "to swell, etc." allophonic with *bheu-
*beu-2 onomatopoeic root

Rick Mc Callister
Mississippi University for Women
Columbus MS 39701

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