Karnataka: interesting blog

Harold F. Schiffman haroldfs at ccat.sas.upenn.edu
Fri Dec 29 14:38:43 UTC 2006


Meti Mallikarjun
Dept. of Linguistics
Sahyadri Arts College
Kuvempu University
metimallikarjun at yahoo.com
meti.mallikarjun at gmail.com


This paper intends to explore the interactions and interfaces between
Kannada and English in terms of linguistic value, myth and danger in the
process of Globalization i.e. the way in which linguistic hegemony and
domination occur at the local and global level in the context of
linguistic choice, preferences and use in the functional domains. The
domains, which we take into consideration in order to understand the
linguistic hegemony and domination are; education, science, technology and
wider communication. The impact of globalization, internationalism,
information technology, economical reformations and international
relations on the local language i.e. Kannada is the major concern of this
paper. At the same time, how English plays an important role in order to
make the Indian languages as an unpredictable therefore, this paper
discusses hybridity as a strategy of survival for those caught between the
languages of their colonization and their indigenous languages and
illustrates how, through hybridization, postcolonial subjects use colonial
languages without privileging colonial languages. Drawing on Bakhtinian
notion of hybridization, this paper shows colonial and indigenous
languages contesting each others authority, challenging and unmasking the
hegemony of English and to some extent Kannada is indigenous language
spoken in Karnataka. However, this paper conceives the relationship of
English and Kannada as not always contestatory but as accomodating. the
paper extends our understanding of hybridity as marking both contestation
and communion. Of particular significance is the way in which English is
criticized even in the using of it in literature, education and science
and technology. This analysis of hybridity highlights the
contradictoriness of colonized identity and establishes and confirms the
idea of a hybridized postcolonial cultural and linguistic identity.How are
language and identity related? This exploratory essay probes the
conceptual and logical connections between these two elemental factors of
human existence, offers thoughts about an alternative discourse, and looks
at suggestive data regarding the tie between violence and identity... In
this argumentative essay, language is seen as forming a nucleus of
identity, identity as being forged in conflict, and discourse marking our
path to, through and out of linguistic war and peace. Abating identity
threats through identity-affirming discourse may, I conclude, be the best
and most lasting tool towards linguistic peace.

1. Introduction

In the present paper, we discuss some of the dynamic links between
Language and power, Language and hegemony and Language and Globalization,
to underscore their impact and relevance to the study of intra and inter
linguistic groups relations. In particular, we address the means by which
the dominance and hegemonic act of English on Indian languages or Kannada
in particular-English as the worlds lingua-franca, language of science,
technology, law, international relations and language of education. It is
without doubt that, since the days of British Raj, English is language of
the domination, status and privilege in India. The hegemonic colonial
project in India was to create and maintain a class of administrative
officers, clerks and compliant civil servants. To establish these agendas
of British Raj, in year 1835, in March, Lord Macaulay, a member of the
supreme council in India, brazenly declared that the task of British in
India was to... do our best to form a class who may be interpreters
between us and the millions we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood
and colour, but in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect
(1919:16). It suggests that the arrival and establishment of English in
Indian situation is not a simple phenomena, of course, it is a complex
phenomena. When English came to India, it came as weapon of colonial and
imperialism not as a language of culture and knowledge. There fore, it is
very important and necessary to realize the socio-cultural, political, and
linguistic realities of Kannada in the context of globalization i.e.
sociolinguistic globalization. India, being a multilingual and
multicultural country for a long time, in this multiplicity, everyone
experiences the heterogeneity in terms of linguistic, cultural and social
values, beliefs, practice and behavior which attest the political and
cultural nationality of India. It is true; the linguistic situation of
India has been a quite crucial factor in understanding the Indianess of
course, there are myths and realities regarding Indianess, but here, this
notion is taken as collective phenomena which may helps us to understand
the heterogeneous realities of this country. This persisting fundamental
diversity is being approached and reflected in this paper under the
concepts of multi-perceptivity, multi-expressiveness and multi-lingualism.
In this sense, India is to be considered as multi-lingual country at each
of its conspicuous aspects, parts and concerns not just based on several
languages are being spoken by Indians. Where as all socio-linguistic
groups and communities having multiple modes of expressions and
communication live side by side even overly each other, without,
necessarily, entering in conflict with one another. Thus, language and its
diversity is one of the significant indicators for characterizing the
unity and diversity of this country. Therefore, in the context of
multilingual consciousness and identities, to examine the effects of the
hegemony of English on the language attitudes of speakers of a given
language at one hand at the other, to investigate the connections between
the predominant use of English in education and other functional domains
at the institutional level and the vitality or sub-ordination of selected
Indian language i.e. Kannada. In this regard, the English language has
become a dominant tool of communication, which raised several conflict and
confusions in linguistic choice and preferences.

2. Linguistic and Cultural Conflict: Whether English is a Weapon or
Liberating Force?

It is widely debated and discussed that, the end of the twentieth century
was becoming a major turning point in the linguistic and cultural context,
as it changes from a multilingual to an English monolingual environment as
for as Indian situation (it means, in the functional domains) is
concerned. The concepts like Global Language and Global Village are
perishing the indigenous linguistic and social diversities at local level,
in the sense, nativizing English in India. The relationship of English
with the Indian languages is legitimized by its nativization. It has been
nativized in grammar, semantics, and pragmatic acquiring the features of
Indian languages (E.Annamalai:2004). This development is reinforced in the
process of globalization, in this process, where all linguistic and
socio-cultural diversities are disappearing, in the sense, the concept of
pluralism are replaced by the concepts like global village and global
language. By this way, monoculture and mono-language situations are taking
their establishment in the avatar of neo-colonialism, this is how,
linguistic and cultural hegemony is spreading across the world. At the
same time, it is very significant to reevaluate the impact and influence
of English language and Westernization on Indian cultural and linguistic
entities. It does not mean that, the above-discussed arguments are
strateforword and simple enough to agree. Consequently, there are voices,
which witness and attest the assumptions, aspirations and perceptions of
English language in globalization. The vast majority of people who are
learning English are doing so to be able to use this lingua franca. It
means that, they are not learning English with express purpose of
communicating with native speakers of English. Non-native speakers with
other non-native speakers are using English. The English that they use
need not therefore reflect any Anglo cultural values. This implies that
English is no longer some colonial language. We in Asia communicate with
the world and one another by the means. Therefore, the demand of English
learning in primary schools at first standard in Karnataka by backwards
and Dalits has become very crucial phenomena. If at all Kannadigas would
like to interact in intra-lingual situation in India itself, they can only
choose English language. Such extended functions of English have a
profound effect on the nature of multilingualism in India. The very
disadvantage of this linguistic effect on Indian multiplicity of language
and culture in terms, where the correlations interlinked between the great
and little traditions (singer 1972) in the practiced of shared culture
will be in endangered situation. The challenging task is, what are the
mode of preserving strategies have to be followed by the indigenous speech
communities in this socio-linguistic crises. In this respect, they have
been practicing a happy but typical mixture of localization and
globalization with reference to their mother tongue and the other tongue,
English (A.P.Andrewskutty:2002). It may be the case of promoting Local
language and cultures has degree of importance for Indian (i.e. Kannada
identity) identity, in that linguistic equality  or at least linguistic
pluralism contributes to social cohesion (A.P.Andrewskutty:2002).
Rehabilitating indigenous languages at the institutional level encourages
the polity to engage with a shared history and has the effect of promoting
national unity but as legitimating symbols of a proto-nation state in era
of globalization, pluri-lingual policies which promote languages are, on
their own, not enough. There fore, it is felt that to the outside world
any Indian language will not survive in the functional domains.
Consequently, the oppressed social groups want to appropriate English to
serve them in their battle against upper castes, who have come to control
the major Indian languages and the benefits from them. While becoming a
powerful cousin to help the disadvantaged, English has simultaneously
acquired a native elite cutting across regions and castes, and has spread
from cerebral domains to expressive domains, which have been exclusive to
Indian languages, in the name of modernity and cosmopolitanism
(E.Annamalai:2004). It is very much necessary to make English available to
downtrodden and other Dalits and Backwards Classes in the domains like
education alongside their local language. In this, way unprivileged social
groups can be benefited the linguistic opportunities at global level. This
also recognizes the role of language as the main vehicle for the
construction, replication, and transmission of culture itself. Though
language itself is a cultural construct, this does not imply that it can
be deconstructed, changed, or radically altered by the application of
particular political scrutinizes of one sort or another. Language (and
languages) means different things to different people, and
policy-formulation is often vague and ill defined. Perhaps the main
contribution of this paper is to view language policy as not only the
specific, the overt, the explicit, the de-jury embodiment of rules in laws
or constitutions, but as a broader entity, rooted in covert, implicit,
grass- roots, unwritten, de facto practices that go deep into the culture.
In the end, every language policy is culture-specific, and it is in the
study of linguistic culture that we will come to understand why language
policies evolve the way they do, why they work (or do not work) the way
they are planned to work, and how peoples' lives are affected by them. The
challenge in the study of language policy is that there are so many
variables that must be dealt with and those simplistic notions or one-note
theories cannot hope to capture the complexity that is language and
linguistic culture (Harold F. Schiffman: 1996). There is no danger that
any group will learn English, so the politics of elite centricity must be
seen as an attack on unprivileged social groups where they can be
benefited the linguistic opportunities.

3. Language Use in Functional Domains: Linguistic Priority and Choice
Language is a communication medium for turning a power base into
influence. However, more than that, the creation of power and its
maintenance or change can also occur in and through language. The way in
which language choice takes place based on linguistic priority in a
multilingual situation is very complex factor. In which linguistic
preference interplays between native language and English in various
functional domains. What is especially interesting in this paper is that
it analyses the different ways in which English as a means of
communication is evolving, developing into literally separate languages,
yet which are still understandable by those who speak any version of
English. English is important not just for competitiveness with regard to
the IT sector but also because it has gone on to become glue for the whole
of India which has several official languages to preserve. Indian English
is really a language on its own, as evidenced by the body of Indian
writing in English, and the fact that practically all higher education is
in the English language. In fact, it is explaining very well how many
Indians use only English to speak with each other. English is as Indian a
language as any other is. English has a dominant position in science,
technology, medicine, and computers, in research, books, periodicals, and
software, in transnational business, trade, shipping and aviation; in
diplomacy and international organizations; in mass media entertainment,
news agencies, and journalism; in youth culture, sports; in education
systems. As the most widely learnt, foreign language can estimate 115
million learners at school level the early 1970s, (Gage and Ohannessian
1974; British councilling report 1989/9). English education has become
most desirable thing for professional jobs and a mark of status in India
where as, Kannada and other Indian languages do not fulfill their
expectations in terms of economic and societal aspects. However, English
has given a prominent place among elite and middle-class people. It is
true; Kannada is oldest language, heritagious and got literary tradition
than English. Nevertheless, in the global context, the amount of
importance and privilege is given to English just because of it was a
language of colonialism, imperialists and modernity i.e. enlightenment.
Therefore, the traditional Hindu-intellectuals demanded the English
language for education and other functional usages. This can be proved by
stating Surendranath Banerjee, a Bengali intellectual, English education
has uplifted all who have come under its influence to a common platform of
thoughts, feelings and aspirations. Educated Indians whether of Bengal,
Madras, Bombay, or northwestern provinces are brought up under the same
intellectual moral and political influences, kindred hopes, feelings and
ideas are thus generated. The educated class of India is thus brought
nearer together.... (N.krishnaswamy and Lalitha krishnaswamy: 2006: p-78)
Its importance as a language of vital opportunities and international
contact has become increasingly clear. On the other hand, all the major
Indian languages and the number of minority and tribal languages that are
claiming their share in the country is educational and power structure is
increasingly multiplying. Nor could anyone deny the significance of Hindi
developing as a national link language.

Thus, the constitution also provides for the rights of its citizens to
make representation in any language to the state. It also provides for
instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education to
children belonging to linguistic minorities the multiplicity of languages
in the country and the continued presence of English for a variety of
important functions made it clear that no straightforward simplistic
solution could sustain the participatory nature of democracy in a
plurilingual society. It is therefore not surprising that the three-
language formula evolved as a consensus in 1961 even before India gained
its independence in 1947; there were attempts to evolve a policy that
would be more suitable to the needs of a self-governing India than that
which was in effect in the British Raj, i.e. a policy that favored
English. Consequently, negative attitudes have been developed among
Indians especially among south Indians, thinking that Hindi is neither our
official and nor the national language where as, colonial rule has gone a
long way in diluting negative feelings towards the English language. In
the 1960s, a bitter conflict considering the status of various languages
in India arose from concerns of the southern states (in which Hindi is not
widely spoken) that the use of Hindi in the government services would
disadvantage them for employment in those areas.  They thought, also, that
it was unfair for them having to learn both Hindi and English, whereas
native speakers of Hindi would only have to learn English. Thus, in India,
there is a great number of sociolinguistic pressures influencing the
development of language education; Spolsky (1978: 55-64) has stated that
the language policy of the school system is both a result of the pressures
and a source of pressure itself. He, too, claims that education to be the
strongest weapon for enforcing language policy. He proves by listing the
following pressures to have an effect on language planning in a society:
family (attitudes at home), religion (if the maintenance of a language is
based on a belief in a "holy tongue"), ethnicity, political pressures
(aiming at establishing national unity; a language tradition is
acknowledged as a powerful force within a nationalist movement), cultural
pressures, economic pressures (which include commerce, advanced science
and technology: the idea is that not all languages have modern
technological vocabulary and it is more rational to adopt a language such
as English for this purpose), the mass media (e.g., if there is no media
in a particular language, there will be strong pressure to learn another
language which is better provided), legal pressures (lack of the official
language can often become the basis for discrimination), military pressure
(desirability to use one common language) (Spolsky 1978: 53-63). In India,
as in other linguistically and culturally pluralistic societies, the
position of English is determined by various political, cultural and
social considerations. English as a symbol of modernity for elites and
Hindu-intellectuals-at the same time, English is also available for Dalits
and other downtrodden people from setting-out of the socio-cultural
exploitations and hegemony. In addition, the implicit intentions are
always towards English education among middle-class for so many
socio-cultural and political reasons and compulsions. Due to the
colonialism, globalization and IT revolution, in the process, in which,
the Indian languages are confronting several issues where it is necessary
to make many considerations to bring at the mainstream at least in the
local context. The issues and problems related to languages are not just
linguistic problems; they are also socio-cultural conflicts and political
issues. Therefore, it is very significant to discuss now the position of
Kannada in the globalization context. Despite some priorities the very
strange development has taken place is, demanding classical status for
Kannada- it is very difficult to judge that how for it is relevant to
declare a particular one, as a classical language in a multilingual
situation. In the Info-Age and IT-revolution, the priorities must set as
pro-common people not for specific group of people at least for near
future, where as English has all the characteristics that make it likely
to remain the dominant worldwide language, then also it has become a
liberating force for colonized and hegemonic-class of people. Mark Tully
(1997:161-162) points out that the elitist status of English in India
creates problems for the economic development because that means that the
education of the mass of people will be ignored. He argues that the
solution for the situation would be that the spread of English throughout
India would be encouraged so that it would become a "genuine link language
of the country, not just, as it is at present, the link language of the
elite. That is how;  Globalization has also favored the growing need to
learn foreign languages. This language learning, in order to contribute to
peace, has to be accompanied by the transmission of the culture that is
behind these languages. At least, there can also be a language, which
promotes tolerance, diversity and peace among Indians.

4. Wider Communication: Is English For All?

The spread of English is a significant in its way as is the modern use of
wider communication and Info-technology. Within a short span of time
(Minor language in 1600 AD), the remarkable development of English is
ultimately the result of between 17th to 20th century British success in
conquest, colonization, and trade. Nowadays, it is also felt that with the
winds of change setting in with globalization and the advancement in IT,
the need to communicate in English has acquired greater importance. It is
beyond doubt that English being a global tongue can function as a bridge
between language barriers. Approximately 700 million speakers use it, by
the bulk of the world mailing system and electronic information services
(A.P.Andrewskutty:2002). The question arises is that will it possible for
Indian languages to take a technological and economic leap, without this
language in future. At this moment, it is very difficult to predict the
position of Kannada or any other Indian languages, as we shall see;
English is one of the several languages, which are promoted
internationally in similar ways. This shall explore why English has become
the dominant international language and how language pedagogy has
contributed to its hegemony.

As a result, English has also become a lingua- franca to the point that
any literate educated person in a very real sense deprived if he does not
know English. English is a colonial language, and it continued to be the
official language after independence, virtually, in Indian States that
were under British rule. In some cases, it was retained to avoid ethnic
tensions; in all cases, it was retained because of its prestige and
association with power. In contrast, the vernaculars were viewed as
backward and inferior so were not developed.  Students were made to feel
ashamed of their mother tongue and punished for speaking it. In Karnataka,
for example, speaking in vernaculars was forbidden in schools and punished
(i.e. in convent schools). It is also felt that, today it is difficult to
use indigenous languages because they have not been codified and
standardized. Therefore, there is not a systematic curriculum as for as
language texts and trained teachers are concerned in the vernaculars.
Moreover, this has often been used as an excuse for not adopting the
innovative and modern linguistic aspects in vernaculars in schools. Even
the terms used to refer to vernacular languages are controversial. They
include such terms as dialects, minority languages and undeveloped
languages - all of which suggest that the languages are not rich in
expression and are unsuitable for modern needs.  The long-standing neglect
of indigenous languages has resulted in the popular belief that they are
incapable of imparting a modern education, including science and
technology. The prestigious status of the English language and its
dominant role in globalization, added to the absence of the political will
to implement policies that promote the use of indigenous languages, have
led to the almost complete marginalization of mother-tongue education in
most of the Indian private schools. A lack of resource-producing and the
multiplicity of indigenous languages have also responsible to this
socio-linguistic problems. Indians speak 1652 distinct languages- Where
as, English still holds control despite a policy of medium of instruction
in mother tongues. However, UNESCO has made up firm decisions to encourage
the indigenous languages in schooling, as for as human/linguistic rights
are concerned. Nevertheless, all the time the promotion of local languages
will remain merely rhetorical. In addition, English will continue to take
the pride of place at the expense of local languages. Which is the main
medium of instruction at the postgraduate level, and it is taught as a
second language in all states of India. In such a linguistic crisis, how
would it be possible to bring the native languages to the main stream or
at the global level? It does not mean that Indian languages are not
potential to grow but they are potential, due the lack of socio-political
interests, they have not been implemented.  However, it is significant
that what Kachru (1986b:20) sees primarily three questions which continue
to be discussed. The first question concerns the position of English in
early and in higher education. The second question is concerned with the
roles of the regional language, Hindi and English. The third question
deals with the model of English which, presented to Indian learners, and
how that presentation can be made uniformly and effectively. The
Government of India has primarily been concerned with the first two
questions, which are directly related to language planning at both the
national and state levels. There are, yet, no acceptable answers to any of
these questions (Kachru 1986b:20). It is therefore, not surprising that
English is being used in most all in functional domains. English, today,
is undoubtedly the most powerful and viable international lingua franca.
It represents a bridge across languages and their speakers and, in this
sense, it has made a significant contribution to the development of
transnational, international, and global identities (A .hatoss & D.
Cunningham: 2004). At the same time, this is necessary to note that
English-speaking community does not constitute a speech community.
Similarly, it cannot be a either linguistic or cultural identity marker.
Every Indian asserts his identity either through native language or
through indigenous cultural vitality/ethos, thus, this attitudinal feature
reinforce to preserve the native linguistic and cultural identity even in
the globalization process. From another less optimistic perspective, the
worldwide dominance of English is causing much agonizing over fear of
encroaching westernization. It is seen as threatening cultures and values
(c.f.Phillipson2003, Skutnab Kangas:  2000). As it is already mentioned
that English is not a colonial language anymore, therefore, we could able
to protect and preserve our linguistic and cultural ethos and identities.

5. Linguistic Borrowings: Linguistic contestatory or accomodating
There is one more perception, which can be employed to understand language
is linguistic borrowings. In the process of linguistic contact, it so
happens that is its function as a cultural or sub-cultural indicator. This
is reason enough to indicate the prevalence of the multifarious dialects
in Kannada and even in English. A linguistic borrowing is a historical
process in multilingual-multicultural situation. One influences another
one at the same time, it will be reciprocal process in most of the cases.
As for as Indian languages are concerned either they borrow (linguistic)
lexical items, concepts from Sanskrit or from English language in general.
It is also noticeable that, regarding literary and socio-cultural
concepts, either registers or lexical items are normally borrowed from
Sanskrit at the other hand, linguistic borrowings related to science,
technology and social science are from English. In most of the cases,
these borrowings would be nativized by just adding u at the word final.
There fore, it is felt by U R Ananthamurthy in the context of nativizing
the place names like Bangalore will be bengalooru etc that, The intention
is that even a foreigner who visits the city will use a kannada-sounding
word by calling the city Bengalooru. The u vowel distinguishes our
language, just like the o in kolkata is distinct to Bengali. By adding the
u, even words like chair-u and table-u become Kannada (c.f. Desha Kaala:
II vol: V by M S Shriram). At the other side K V Narayana suggests that,
words from English must be directly incorporated into the Kannada
vocabulary is refreshing when seen against the banal literal translation
of terms, which do not connote any thing naturally (c.f. The Hindu:
20-1-2006: Friday Review).

Sociologically and linguistically, one needs little instruction to
understand how vocabulary is borrowed from dominant languages for
specialist uses, inter-lingual communication, and new occupations and so
on and so forth (Sudhakar Marathe) as for as borrowing is concerned in any
given language is not based on government polices or language planning. It
is a common phenomenon, as and when the given speech community requires a
lexical item based on availability, they just do it.  There are
apprehensions that linguistic borrowing causes a language loss/shift. In
addition to this, linguistic borrowing may replace language diversities,
for instance, in Kannada, maduve, vivaaha, lagna, and kalyana all the
lexical items more or less indicate the same meaning, marriage or wedding.
However, the prevalence usage is marriage. It often occurs in case of
kinship terms like; cousin is one of the profoundly used lexical items in
almost all the languages despite the native kinship terms. One thing can
be noticed this day is the language, which was being used in the cerebral
domains now it has also entered to expressive and private domains. There
fore, the apprehensions are taking place among native speakers of India.
Contrary to this argument, there are opinions regarding linguistic
borrowings are; language must be receptive and adaptive for this, English
is the best example, by nativizing loan/borrowed words from different
languages- English has enriched its vocabulary. At the present situation,
all the native languages of India is tend to adapt the structural entities
of English language which means, word-formation, lexicalization etc for
example ization, and -able, jaagatikaraNa, (globalization) noDeble
(seeable) and tinneble (eatable) respectively.  Apart from this, there are
other kinds of borrowings also are taking place; creating literary sense
and concepts and lexical innovations, which may be called, as hybrid
innovations are common phenomena.

6. Conclusion:

As it is argued, so for the position and appropriation of Kannada and
English are in the context of local and global considerations are intend
to explore very crucial linguistic and cultural realities. At one hand, it
suggests that accepting English as a second language, there is no threat
and at the other, due to the domination and hegemony of English, the
indigenous languages are under endangerment. Keeping in mind these two
arguments, one can raise a question that this dominant language was not
under the control of any native elite guarding access to it (like Sanskrit
was under the control of Brahmins and Persian under the Muslim elite).
This gave the dominant language English the image of having open access
through education and standing apart from other native dominant languages.
[Dua: 1994 and Annamalai: 2004]. There fore, it is felt that, English came
to be viewed as the language of rational and scientific (as opposed to
religious) thought and material (as opposed to spiritual) progress. It
came to be viewed as fulfilling a need for the elite to work together on
their political and economic agendas... (Annamalai: 2004) that is why,
today cautions against the English language acquiring a monopoly over the
Internet and computer media, and said this would stifle the development
and growth of Indian languages.

Undoubtedly, it can be declared that English pre-dominates in the domain
of information technology. None of the languages of world has got this
much of privilege. The requirement of English in every domains itself is a
threat. It is also spreading from cerebral domains to private and
expressive domains. Unless and until English constitutes as a speech
community in India, there is no threat, as for as socio-cultural entities
are concerned. However, in the domain of Internet it pre-dominates its
domination. There fore, even in the context of a net search on "Kannada
literature" yields about 500,000 results. In fact, with some exceptions
such as Tamil, Hindi and Bangla, hits for most Indian languages fall
somewhere in this region. A similar search on "English literature" would
give you close to 300 million results. Hardly surprising, considering how
language is one of the most important markers of the digital divide.
However, even as English is increasingly becoming the language of
information technology, there are parallel efforts at bending it to suit
the local needs. One such bridge-building effort is kannadasaahithya.com,
a portal that has been putting Kannada literature on the global
information network for five years now. Says Shekharpoorna, the editor of
the portal: "Modern technology is immensely powerful. It can create,
sustain or destroy. We must put our stamp on all major tools of modern
technology in order to ensure that cultures, as well as the languages that
sustain those cultures, are not swallowed up by the dominant language
forces governing technology." It is very significant to quote that Harold
F. Schiffman (1996), As we have noted, language status management in
post-colonial India has involved a policy, since 1950, of attempting to
restrict the domains of English in India as a whole, where as in some
linguistic states (such as Tamilnadu) the effort has been one of limiting
the domains of Hindi and Sanskrit so that Tamil can recapture the domains
elementary and secondary education, the media, and so forth.  This
regional policy, because English is perceived in some way as a buffer
against Hindi, which is perceived as greater threat linguistic survival
for the Tamils. In other words, English is virus-protection. English will
not, it is believed, invade the cell in the same way that Hindi might;
English is .safe. In addition, prophylactic, and will protect the inner
domains from invasion, remaining safely in the outer ones. Earlier I might
have agreed with this; today, with global job markets and other ways that
English can be not only a useful part of a South Asian persons linguistic
repertoire, but also indeed a vital part, I am not so sure. This signifies
very clearly that between English and regional languages of India have
linguistic accommodation rather contestation. Therefore, many people speak
English. However, many of these people do not speak English as their first
language. In fact, they often use English as a lingua franca in order to
communicate with other people who also speak English as a foreign
language. At this point students often wonder what kind of English they
are learning. Are they learning English as it spoken in Britain?
Alternatively, are they learning English as it is spoken in the United
States, or Australia? No, in fact, English is being spoken in three
different modes like what Braj Kacru (1986) classifies; as a native
language, as a second language and as a foreign language which means inner
circle, outer circle and expanding circle respectively. Thus, in India
English is being taught as a second language more than that India has
constituted that its own variety of English that is called Indian English.
Indians can assert their identities through this variety of English as an
Indian where as in side the country, there are sub varieties in which they
can assert their identities like kanglish, tanglish, hinglish etc.


1. Annamalai.E:2004: Nativization of English in India and its effect on
multilingualism (151-162) - in journal of language and politics 3:1, John
Benjamins publishing Company.
2. Anderson, B. (1990). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin
and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
3. Andrewskutty.A.P:1996: Globalization and Language: A case study of
Malayalam in IJDL vol VI, No 2
4. Kachru, Braj B. 1983. The Indianization of English: the English
language in India. Delhi and New York: Oxford.
5.Kachru, Braj B. 1986. The alchemy of English: the spread, functions, and
models of non-native Englishes Oxford and New York: Pergamon.
6. Cunningham, D and Hotoss, A: 2005 an International Perspective on
Language Policies, Practices and Proficiencies. (Eds)Begrave: FIPLV.
7. David Crystal: 1997: English as a Global Language
Cambridge University Press
8. Desha Kaala: II vol: V: 2006
9. Dua: 1994: Hegemony of English. Maysore: Yashoda Publications
10. Crystal, D. (1997). English as a global Language. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
11. Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
12. Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power. Harlow, UK: Longman.
13. Krishnaswamy.N & Lalitha Krishnaswamy : The Story of English,
Foundation, Books
14. Mark Tully: 1997 :( 161-162. "English: an advantage to India?" In ELT
Journal vol. 51 no. 2: 157-164
15. Narayana K V: 2005: Nammodane Namma Nudi, Lohia Prakashana
16. Ngugi wa Thiongo. 1994. Decolonizing the Mind. The Politics of
Language in African Literature. London and Portsmouth: James Currey Ltd.
and Heinemann.
17. Pennycook, A. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an
international language. Harlow, England: Longman.
18. Phillipson: 2003, English-Only Europe? Challenging Language Policy,
Rout ledge
19. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
20. Phillipson, R., & Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1997). Linguistic human rights
and English in Europe.
21: Singer, M. (1972) Weak States in a World of Powers (Free Press: New
22.Skutnab Kangas: 2000 Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2000). Linguistic genocide in
educationor worldwide diversity and human rights. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
23. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2000, Linguistic Genocide in Education - Or
Diversity and Human Rights. Mahwah, N.J. and London: Lawrence Erlbaum
24. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Phillipson, R. (Eds.). (1994). Linguistic human
rights: Overcoming linguistic determination. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
25. Schiffman, Harold F. 1996. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. New
York and London: Routledge.
26. Spolsky 1978:. Educational Linguistics: an Introduction. Rowley, Mass:
Newbury House.
27. The Hindu: 20-1-2006
28. Viswanathan, G. (1989). Masks of conquest: Literary study and British
rule in India. New York: Columbia University Press
posted by metimallikarjun at 10:29 AM


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