Canada: Ghosh, Ratma. (2004). Canada: A Multicultural Policy.

Harold Schiffman hfsclpp at
Sun Nov 16 18:02:58 UTC 2008

Ghosh, Ratma. (2004). Canada: A Multicultural Policy.  In (Ed.) Iris
C. Rotberg. Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform.
Scarecrow Education:  Lanham, Maryland (p. 261-282)

"Canada is a wealthy nation, and as a liberal democracy it attempts to
ensure its people equality of access to social benefits such as
education, health care and pension plans.

The Multiculturalism Policy (1971), The Multicultural Act (1988) and
the Employment Equity Act (1986).

Canadian school systems are highly centralized at the provincial
level. Canada has no federal office of education and no national
education policy. The federal government facilitates programs such as
bilingualism and multiculturalism and also plays a significant role in
constitutional reforms that affect education. Although Quebec is one
of ten provineces its position in Canada in unique. It is the only
province that has rejected the policies of both bilingualism and
multiculturalism Quebec's official language is French, and it has its
own multicultural policy.

Language rather than religion became the distinct characteristic of
Quebec. There is very strong nationalism there.

1978- La Politique Québécois du development culturelle--- formulated
Quebec's policy, stressing the importance of diversity in the
construction of a common society through the medium of French

Integration as opposed to assimilation approach has only been taken in
rather recent times. China supports the largest and, in many ways, one
of the world's most effective education systems. For instance, more
than sixteen million students are in China's higher education system.

Historically, French schools have been Catholic and English schools
protestant. Legislation in 1977 forced children of many non-French
speaking groups---- French school became obligatory (p.275).
Observers have argued that the government's policies on immigrant
education have responded primarily to a concern that French Canadians
are victims of "language menace" and have therefore neglected problems
faced by a new immigrant group.

Because of the non-negotiable status of

Hayday, Matthew. (2005). Bilingual Today, United Tommorrow: Official
Languages in Education and Canadian Federalism. McGill-Queen's
University Press: Montreal

Beraichevsky, Norman. (2004). Nations, Language and Citizenship.
McFarland & Company Inc: Jefferson, NC

Rong, Ma. (2007). Bilingual Education for China's Ehtnic Minorities
Chinese Education and Society, vol 40, 2, p. 9-25

Chinese, mandarin, has become the working lingua franca of China.
Generally speaking, China's language policiy is that "bilingualism is
a fact of life that is good for the country and lingusitic
diversification is just as essential as other kinds of
diversification" (p. 14). Every ehtnic group that has its own language
and writing should use that language for educational instruction and
master its own language while alos learning spoken and written Chinese
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