[lg policy] bibitem: The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse

Harold Schiffman hfsclpp at GMAIL.COM
Wed Apr 27 19:52:54 UTC 2011

The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse
by Arienne M. Dwyer
ISBN 1-932728-29-5 (online)
ISSN 1547-1330 (online)

Online at: www.eastwestcenterwashington.org/publications
East-West Center Washington
1819 L Street, NW, Suite 200
Washington, D.C. 20036
Tel: (202) 293-3995
Fax: (202) 293-1402
E-mail: publications at eastwestcenterwashington.org
Website: www.eastwestcenterwashington.org

List of Acronyms vii
Executive Summary ix
Introduction 1
Xinjiang, the Uyghurs, and the Xinjiang Conflict 2
Geographic Scope 5
National-Level Language Planning for
the Minorities of China 5
The Scope of Language Policy 5
Raising Minority “Quality”: Early Language
Planning, 1949–79 7
A Model System? Minority-Language Planning, 1980–89 11
The Status of Languages in Western China 12
Uyghur as a Lingua Franca 12
Situating Major Minority Languages within
the Chinese Sphere 13
The Roots of Modern Language Policy for Xinjiang 15
The Language Standardizing Body 15
Orthographies 16
iv Arienne M. Dwyer Orthographic Reform 17
Computing Standardization, Research, and Development 24
The Politics of Creating Standard Uyghur 25
Language Modernization 26
Language Attitudes and Early Modernization 26
Neologisms 28
Covert Policy: Diluting Culture 29
Monism (Monoculturalism/Monolingualism) 29
Linguistics in the Service of Monist Politics 30
Education 34
Overt Policies: Bilingual Education
Covert Policies: Monolingualism through Educational Reform
Implementing Monolingualism in Education 37
The Role of English 41
English as an International Language 41
Learning English in Xinjiang 42
Language Sequencing 43
Media: Official Representations of Xinjiang
and the Uyghurs 44
Print Publications 45
Non-Scholastic Publishing 45
Newspapers, Broadcasting, and Film 48
Covert Language Policy: The Politicization of Discourse 50
Connotation Management 50
Language Policing 50
Chinese versus Local-Language Nomenclature 51
“Xinjiang” versus “Eastern Turkestan” 51
The Public Discourse Shift 53
The 1996 Shift to “Uyghur Separatists” 54
Post-9/11: “Terrorists” in Service of Monoculturalism 55
Linguistic Nationalism and Transnational Issues 57
The Xinjiang Conflict v
Policy Recommendations 59
China 59
United States 66
Endnotes 71
Bibliography 81
Background of the Xinjiang Conflict 89
Map of the Uyghur Autonomous Region, China 93
Project Information: The Dynamics and Management of
Internal Conflicts in Asia 95
• Project Purpose and Outline 97
• Project Participants List 101
Policy Studies: List of Reviewers 2004–05 105
Policy Studies: Previous Publications

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