[lg policy] bibitem: Lubnani, Libanais, Lebanese: Missionary Education, Language Policy and Identity Formation in Modern Lebanon

Harold Schiffman hfsclpp at GMAIL.COM
Mon Apr 2 14:24:03 UTC 2012

Lubnani, Libanais, Lebanese: Missionary Education, Language Policy and
Identity Formation in Modern Lebanon
Deanna Ferree Womack

Citation Information. Studies in World Christianity. Volume 18, Page 4-20
DOI 10.3366/swc.2012.0003, ISSN 1354-9901,
Available Online April 2012 .
PDF plus

This article examines language instruction and religious and
socio-political identity formation in nineteenth- and early
twentieth-century American Protestant and French Jesuit missionary
institutions in Lebanon. It compares French, English and Arabic
language education policies at Saint Joseph University (Université
Saint-Joseph), Syrian Protestant College (now the American University
in Beirut) and the American Syria Mission schools under the American
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and the Board of Foreign
Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the USA. The article considers
the mutual transformations in the encounter between missionaries and
Lebanese students and addresses the relationship between language
learning and educational, literary and nationalist development in the
Middle East. Emphasising the agency of Arabic-speaking Ottoman
subjects and their reciprocal relationship with missionaries, it
argues that before the turn of the century, those individuals who
acquired a foreign language and excelled in literary Arabic charted
the course toward social, cultural and political change in the
twentieth century.


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