[lg policy] Critics of Trump’s Immigration Policy Can Cite the Bible, too

Harold Schiffman haroldfs at gmail.com
Mon Jun 25 11:09:39 EDT 2018


 Critics of Trump’s Immigration Policy Can Cite the Bible, too News at Home
<https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/category/3>
tags: religion <https://historynewsnetwork.org/tag/423>, immigration
<https://historynewsnetwork.org/tag/1041>, Trump
<https://historynewsnetwork.org/tag/8765>

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by Ed Simon

Ed Simon is the Editor-at-Large for “The Marginalia Review of Books,” a
channel of the “Los Angeles Review of Books.” A frequent contributor at
several sites, his collection America and Other Fictions: On Radical Faith
and Post Religion
<https://www.amazon.co.uk/America-Other-Fictions-Radical-Post-Religion/dp/1785358456>will
be released by Zero Books in November of 2018. He can be followed at his
website <http://www.edsimon.org/>or on Twitter @WithEdSimon
<https://twitter.com/WithEdSimon>.


The Bible is a varied, complicated, and sometimes contradictory document,
as one would expect from any text written by dozens of people, across
centuries and cultures, and is subject to varying translations and
interpretations. Yet for all of the differences of moral and theological
nuances, it is strikingly unified when it comes to the question of how a
stranger in our midst should be treated. Exodus 23:9 – “Do not oppress a
foreigner.” Leviticus 19:33-34 – “When a foreigner resides among you in
your land, do not mistreat them.” Matthew 25:25-36 – “I was a stranger and
you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you
looked after me.”

<https://www.amazon.com/America-Other-Fictions-Radical-Post-Religion/dp/1785358456>Across
the Hebrew Scriptures, the Gospels, and the epistles, it is held that the
immigrant, the refugee, and the stranger must be treated with compassion,
as if they were our own brothers and sisters. This belief is a steadfast
and perennial article in the Bible. Similar passages to the ones mentioned
are found in Deuteronomy, Ezekiel, Malachi, 1 Kings, Job, Luke, Galatians,
Corinthians, and among others. For being a remarkably ambiguous text in so
many ways, its position on the treatment of immigrants is consistent.

Something to think about as Americans are confronted with the horrific
images
<https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/06/ceci-nest-pas-une-cage/563072/>
of
refugee children, some as young as toddlers, kept in cages at ICE detention
centers near the border, as we hear accounts about babies taken from
their nursing
mothers
<https://www.cnn.com/videos/us/2018/06/14/undocumented-mother-baby-taken-while-breastfeeding-lavandera-newday.cnn>,
and perhaps most distressingly of all, when you listen to the actual cries
of detained children
<https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2018/06/18/a-secret-recording-captures-the-sounds-of-crying-children-separated-from-parents-at-the-border/?utm_term=.653a0ef53f59>
while
officials joke about that distress. Despite disingenuous claims from
President Trump that such cruel policies are simply the “law,” or the
responsibility of the Democrats, these draconian procedures find
unequivocal origin in the current administration – even as they now claim a
“change of heart” which many experts argue is no solution at all.

The strategy of separating families of asylum seekers to purely discourage
immigration by demonstrating the government’s capacity for cruelty was
concocted by presidential advisers like Stephen Miller,
<https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/16/us/politics/family-separation-trump.html>facilitated
by Attorney General Jefferson Beauregard Sessions,
<https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/15/us/sessions-bible-verse-romans.html>and
rationalized by Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders
<https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jun/14/sarah-sanders-bible-trump-immigration-border-policy>.
Far from lying about the provenance of the policy as the president has
continually done, both Sessions and Sanders justified such action with
biblical recourse to Romans 13, wrenching Paul’s words out of their context
in an exegetical maneuver that’s been favored in the past by apologists for
slavery.
<https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/06/romans-13/562916/>There
have been swift and unequivocal condemnations of both the policies and the
misuse of scriptural language by the administration from faith leaders,
including the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops,
<https://www.americamagazine.org/politics-society/2018/06/18/catholic-bishops-across-us-condemn-separation-migrant-children>
the United Methodist Church
<http://www.newsweek.com/jeff-sessions-united-methodist-church-catholic-church-family-separation-980210>
of
which AG Sessions is a member, and surprisingly from Trump supporter Rev.
Franklin Graham.
<http://thehill.com/homenews/392104-franklin-graham-criticizes-policy-separating-families-at-border>

Even while on social media millions of dollars have been raised to aid the
immigrants, and massive marches are being planned in over 130 cities on
June 30
<https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/families-belong-together-protests-june-30_us_5b28f513e4b0a4dc9920aa1c>,
a grand narrative unified in language and symbol remains elusive. Linguist
George Lakoff describes how “metaphorical framing” is instrumental in
politics, not even primarily in convincing one’s opposition, but primarily
in providing cohesion to your own side as well. Trump arguably got elected
by deftly using such metaphorical framing, presenting an erroneous,
simplistic, and terrifying spectacle of “American carnage” and promising
that “I alone can fix it.” Trump’s opposition on the other hand has
unfortunately remained mired in what Lakoff describes as the fallacious
assumption that “all you have to do is tell people the facts and they will
reason to the right conclusion.” Trying to convince the most extreme of
Trump supporters with logic is increasingly a losing proposition. What is
even more problematic are how Trump’s opponents frequently engage in
arguments with one another instead of agreeing on a shared language of
resistance.

That’s because while close to three quarters of Americans disapprove of
what’s happening at the border, having seen the awful images of the most
vulnerable among us separated from their parents and forced to sleep under
metallic blankets in cages, a clear and compelling grand narrative of
opposition has yet to fully coalesce.

Rhetorically, opposition to the detentions is sometimes phrased in a
language of American exceptionalism, a gesture towards the belief that the
Trump-Sessions-Miller policy is particularly un-American. Critics of that
sort of language justifiably point to the nation’s history of slave
auctions, American Indian schools, and Japanese-American internment to
explain that the nation has never been exceptional. The former language is
either naïve or ignores historical truth, but the later perhaps suffers
even more egregiously by providing a narrative that lacks in inspiration
and threatens to alienate or exclude millions of potential needed allies.
Such disarray is to the benefit of an administration that excels in
deflection, projection, and gas-lighting, where disagreement and confusion
among the resistance is central to their continuation or expansion of such
policies.

As a means of threading the difference between those two rhetorical
approaches, we could do worse than to return to America’s first indigenous
rhetorical form and literary genre, the Jeremiad. Simultaneously a method
of scriptural interpretation as well as a prophetical call, the Jeremiad
draws its name from the most radical of the books in the Hebrew Scriptures,
and has defined American political rhetoric from the 17th century until
today. Most fully explicated by the historian Sacvan Bercovitch in his
indispensable classic *The**American Jeremiad, *the form draws its urgency
from the biblical book in which the prophet castigates and condemns the
nation’s distance from its highest ideals.

In a nation permeated with the idea of covenant, where definitions of
national identity have often been based on a shared creed more than a
shared background, the jeremiad was a particular potent literary genre that
held America to account for not living up to her principles. Sermons
structured around this theme were common among the second generation of New
England Puritans, with Rev. Samuel Danforth’s sermon *Errand into the
Wilderness, *Benjamin Thompson’s epic poem *New England’s Crisis, *and Rev.
Increase Mather’s *A Day of Trouble is Near *being exemplars of the form.
Prefiguring Lakoff’s observation, Bercovitch writes: “Rhetoric functions
within a culture. It reflects and affects a set of particular psychic,
social, and historical needs. This is conspicuously true of the American
jeremiad…. Myth may clothe history as fiction, but it persuades in
proportion to its capacity to help people act in history.”

For finding its origin in Puritan religious sentiment, the jeremiad has
been amenable to secularization and I would argue is the most significant
and ultimate expression of American political rhetoric. President Abraham
Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address,” Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a
Dream,” and President Barack Obama’s “A More Perfect Union” were all
jeremiads, and only the middle one was conventionally a sermon. What they
all share with the archetypal form is a condemnation of the nation’s
falling short of its defining principles, and a call to live up to those
principles. Bercovitch writes about how “the anti-jeremiad” forecloses
alternatives “by reading into America the futility and fraud of hope
itself.”

Sanders speaks in such a language of futility and fraud when she claims
“that it is very biblical to enforce the law.” Let her hold to such
futility and fraud, the rest of us will choose hope. Better to remember
Jeremiah 22:3 – “Do no violence to the stranger.” As we begin to organize
against such an inhumane and cruel actions taken in our name, we’d do well
to turn to Jeremiah in finding a particularly American language in
opposition to the actions of the administration, one which acknowledges the
crimes of the past but does not give into the deterministic despair of
history, for it also is reverential before the utopian principles of what
deserves to be but is not yet.

Bercovitch writes that as concerns the jeremiad that “Ultimately, its
effectiveness derives from its functional relationship to facts.” Those
opposing Trump already have the facts. They’re just beginning to find the
poetry. In large part that’s being supplied by people of faith, and all of
us, both secular and religious, would do well to hear that poetry,
especially when written in the language of that prophet who loved justice
more than any other.
------------------------------
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   <https://t.newsmaxfeednetwork.com/ck?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.newsmax.com%2Fpolitics%2Ftrump-tower-surveilance-donald-trump%2F2018%2F06%2F25%2Fid%2F868085%2F&data=YzVhMzYxYTQwNmI0Yzk5NDBhODU4ZmExMTA2OWQzNjA0NGUyYTgzZDU5MjQwZWEzYTk3NTliZTQ3MTkzZjA0ZjZlMzk0YmM0YmNkNDg1NDdjNTIzZWZjYTczZjZlZDgxODdmNDE3YWRkNTFhZjU4YzkzMWZlZjAyOGFjNzBmYWIxZmM5MTlhMzFkZmY0OGEyNWFmMGI4MzYyOGI0ZWEzYTU0NjFkZWQwYjUxNmY2NGM1YmRhMjQ2ZjI3ZTExOGY1NDI1N2FkNzAxMGZjZDY0MGE2Y2JiMGVmNTNjNGIyNjgwN2Y3OTUwZjBmMzc1MzE0NmUzYzk1ZGY2N2IyZmE3ZjJjYWFkN2MzNWNjZTI1NTJiYTE2YzA0ZTNhMjEwMzA3ZmY5NjU4ZDBiMzIwNTBhOWNmMmMzNmZlZGNlYTM0NGI5Nzc3MmFiNGIzM2NjZDI4ZDAxZTcxMzBmMTllYzNhMA%3D%3D&sid=9a2a188e5e8949b8aabc16985d004492_611c5c66>

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 Harold F. Schiffman

Professor Emeritus of
 Dravidian Linguistics and Culture
Dept. of South Asia Studies
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6305

Phone:  (215) 898-7475
Fax:  (215) 573-2138

Email:  haroldfs at gmail.com
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/

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