Manner Adverbs

bingfu bingfu at SCF-FS.USC.EDU
Fri Mar 13 04:27:13 UTC 1998

Hi, colleague,
	In Chinese, we cannot say literally, theoretically
'the girl sang beautifully' or
'the girl beautifully sang' (does English allow this sentence?)

We must say
'the girl sang beautiful'.

I think the structure is similar  to 'he died young/a hero'
and 'he drove slow'.
Notice, 'he drove slow' is not equal to 'he drove slowly',
since there is a contrast between
'* he drove his car slow'
'he drove his car slowly'
'*he drove slow into the garage.'
'he drove slowly into the garage.'

	Keep me posted

				Bingfu Lu

On Fri, 13 Mar 1998, l.m.h. stassen wrote:

> Dear colleagues,
> I need your help. Over the last year, my Ph.D. student Floor Loeb and I have
> been trying to set up a data base about (what we still loosely call) "manner
> adverb encoding", and we have found that this is the sort of data that even
> pretty good grammars usually fail to mention. So now I ask you to take five
> to ten minutes to answer the following question: how does, in the
> language(s) that you are familiar with, a sentence like "The girl/she sang
> beautifully" look like? Obviously, it's the "beautifully" part that we're
> interested in, but we'd appreciate it if you could provide us with the full
> sentence nonetheless. Also, any comment on the formal encoding of the
> equivalent of "beautifully" would be most welcome (e.g. , is this an
> adjective in a certain case? Does the item have an affix that has other
> functions in the language, either historically or diachronically? Is this a
> with-phrase with a nominalized item, as in "with beauty"? Or anything else
> you might want to mention as a matter of interest). But please don't feel
> that you can't answer this query if you don't have any real analysis to
> provide: just the data will be extremely useful for us now.
>    It's probably not a good idea to burden our Lingtyp List with the answers
> to this query. Please send your reactions to
>       l.stassen at
> I will be happy to post a summary on this list. I'm afraid I can only give
> you Dutch (and some of its dialects) in return, but I hereby solemnly swear
> that I'll be ready to return the favour anytime you ask.
> Leon Stassen
> Dept.of Linguistics (ATD), KU Nijmegen
> Erasmusplein 1
> 6525 GG Nijmegen                        fax   : +31-24-3615939
> The Netherlands                         e-mail: l.stassen at

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