query: Iranian / Turkic etymologies

Wolfgang Schulze W.Schulze at LRZ.UNI-MUENCHEN.DE
Wed Oct 4 09:12:10 UTC 2000

Dear David,

> (1) _ham_ "also"

The same root as _hame_ (see below). The basic meeaning seems to have
been 'forminng a unity together with something' from which the additive
meaning 'also' is derived. Persian _ham_ (as a prefix _ham-_ meaning
'together with') has correspondences in Old Persian (_ham-_ 'dto.') and
Avesta (_ha/m_ 'dto.') as well as in Sanskrit _sam_ or Armenian
_ham_....In modern languages we have (selection only): Ossetian _aen-_,
Kurdish _hem_, _hew_, Wakhi _an-_ etc....

> (2) _hame_ "all"

stems from (or - better - is related to) Old Persian _hama-_ which means
'all the same' (same in Avesta). It belongs to the *_se/om-_ family in
IE (Lat. _sem-per_ 'always', Goth. _samana_ 'together' etc. (see any IE
dictionary on this).

> (3) _har_ "every"

belongs to Old Persian _haruva-_ 'all, every', Avesta _haUrva-_,
Sanskrit _sárva-_, Greek _hólos_ (all meaning 'all, whole').... Modern
cognates of _har_ are a little bit more difficult to identify, because
_har_ (as _ham(e)_) one of the standard loans of what I'm used to call
the Oriental Communicative Tradition (or simply in 'Oriental').

> My questions:
> (a) What are the etymologies of these forms?  Are any of them
> etymologically related?

_ham_ and _hame_ are related, see above.

> (b) Is it possible to argue that any of them are synchronically
> related,
> in Farsi or in any other modern language?

What to you mean by 'synchronically related'? According to my
understanding of etymology, 'relation' always implies a diachronic
perspective. If you think of a synchronic derivational process, I would
say 'no'.

Best wishes,


Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schulze
Institut für Allgemeine und Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft
Universität München - Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1 - D-80539 München
Tel.: ++49-(0)89-2180 2486 (secretary) // ++49-(0)89-2180 5343 (office)
Fax:  ++49-(0)89-2180 5345
Email:  W.Schulze at lrz.uni-muenchen.de
Web:    http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~wschulze/

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