Re 'and' (fwd)

Edith A Moravcsik edith at CSD.UWM.EDU
Fri Jan 5 18:53:47 UTC 2001


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sun, 31 Dec 2000 14:52:55 +0100
From: Silvia Kouwenberg <silvia at>
To: Edith A Moravcsik <edith at CSD.UWM.EDU>
Subject: Re: Re 'and'


	A ku B = together
	A i B = not necessarily together

	e kòpi (?*nan) ku skòter nan
	the cup (?*PL) with saucer PL
	"the cups and saucers"
	e kòpi i e skòter nan
	a. the cup and saucers
	b. the cups and saucers
	e kòpi nan i e skòter nan
	the cups and saucers

ku = with, also used as comitative P:
	Bo kièr bai Aruba ku mi?
	2sg want go Aruba with 1sg
	"Do you want to go to Aruba with me?"

i = and; also used to conjoin other types of phrases:
Ariba mi kama den kurá mi por drumi i wak tur e strea bunita nan den shelo.
on 1Sg bed in yard 1Sg can lie and see all the star pretty PL in sky
"On my bed in the yeard I can lie down and look at all the pretty stars in
the sky."

Possibly useful reference:
Dijkhoff, Marta 1983. The process of pluralization in Papiamentu. In:
Lawrence Carrington (ed.) Studies in Caribbean language, 217-229. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: Society for Caribbean Linguistics.

At 01:06 PM 25-12-00 -0600, you wrote:
>In the beginning of December, I posted a query regarding the grammatical
>means that languages use to differentiate between the following two
>   (a) John and Mary went to the party together.
>   (b) John and Mary went to the party separately.
>I was interested in ways of expressing these two meanings other than by
>the use of different adverbs - as in English - and other than the use of
>the comitative case on "Mary" in (a). More particulary, I was wondering if
>there were languages with alternative forms for 'and' that express the two
>meanings while keeping the equal status of the conjuncts.


Silvia Kouwenberg
Dept of Language, Linguistics & Philosophy
University of the West Indies
Mona, Kgn 7
e-mail: <silvia at>
ph +(1)876-9702950/9448348


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