Kulikov, L.I. L.Kulikov at HUM.LEIDENUNIV.NL
Tue Oct 6 12:41:47 UTC 2009

Dear Diego,
Concerning the extremely intricate issue of the historical relationships between perfect and middle in Indo-European, 
I would like to add that, after two pioneer papers by Kurylowizc ans Stang much was written on that topic. 
Next to the paper by Wolfgang Schulze in FoL, I would also mention some very important observations
(with a tentative reconstruction) made by Kortlandt in    
    Kortlandt, F.H.H. 1979. Toward a reconstruction of the Balto-Slavic verbal system. Lingua 49: 51-70.
There is also a few useful surveys, such as in 
    Szemerényi, O.J.L. 1990. Einführung in die vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft. 4. Aufl. Darmstadt: Wissensch. Buchgesellschaft pp. 363-367
See also some remarks on the issue in my paper     
    Kulikov, L. 2006. Passive and middle in Indo-European: Reconstructing the early Vedic passive paradigm. In: W. Abraham & L. Leisiö (eds), Passivization and typology: form and function. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 62-81.


Leonid Kulikov

Leiden University 

Faculty of Humanities, Institute of Linguistics / Dept. of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics (LUCL/VIET)

PO Box 9515

2300 RA Leiden 

The Netherlands 

Tel. +31-71-5272203 

E-mail: L.Kulikov at 

Home page: <>  



From: Discussion List for ALT [mailto:LINGTYP at LISTSERV.LINGUISTLIST.ORG] On Behalf Of J. Diego Quesada
Sent: dinsdag 6 oktober 2009 2:02
Subject: Channel PERFECTIVE > MIDDLE

Dear colleagues,

Does anyone know of a language in which the (former) marker of perfective aspect became a marker of middle voice? In Bocotá, a language of Panama, the marker -du has been described as a marker of perfective aspect (Gunn 1975), while in Buglere, a dialect of Bocotá, spoken in Southwestern Panama and Costa Rica, it clearly behaves as a marker of middle voice. While it is not difficult to trace the likely semantic reanalysis underlying this change, I would like to know if this has been attested elsewhere.



Prof. Dr. J. Diego Quesada 
Escuela de Literatura y Ciencias del Lenguaje 
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras 
Universidad Nacional 
3000 Heredia, COSTA RICA 

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