[Lingtyp] Word order variation between matrix & subordinate clauses

Harald Hammarström harald at bombo.se
Thu Jul 20 21:31:36 UTC 2017

Dear Emily,
In the Grambank project we have data for 559 lgs on whether the word order
is the same in main and subordinate clauses. In 43 of those languages the
word order is not the same. They're listed below. Email me off-list for
details. all the best, H

Avokaya avok1242 Nataliia Neshcheret 0 - absent Callinan (1984:49-50,63-66)
Batak Karo bata1293 Ger Reesink and Ruth Singer Michael Dunn 0 - absent p.277:
subordinate (i.e. consecutive) clauses prefer S-Pred order, while main
independent clauses prefer P-S.
Bena (Tanzania) bena1262 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Bernander, Rasmus (2014
Betawi beta1252 Tessa Yuditha 0 - absent Ikranagara (1975:45)
Bilua bilu1245 Ger Reesink and Ruth Singer Michael Dunn 0 - absent Obata
2003, Obata 2003 in complement clauses, "th VP always takes clause-initial
position and optional constituents follow this" [p.213] Not sure about the
other dependent clause types.
Bondo bond1245 Tim Witte 0 - absent Fernandez (1969:128)
Cavineña cavi1250 Olga Krasnoukhova 0 - absent Guillaume (2008:91) While
the constituent order is not fixed in the main clause, in relative and
adverbial clauses, the verb (inflecting verb, auxiliary verb or copula
verb) obligatorily occurs in the final position (Guillaume 2008:748).
Cha'palaa chac1249 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Floyd, Simeon (2014 p.c.) less
free order in
Cheke Holo chek1238 Ger Reesink and Ruth Singer Michael Dunn 0 - absent see
p.290: in clauses with /me/ inceptive, or /ame/ 'before', no SV(O) order is
Copala Triqui copa1237 Roberto Herrera 0 - absent Hollenbach (2004)
Dutch dutc1256 Ger Reesink and Ruth Singer Michael Dunn 0 - absent Subordinate
clauses have SOV
Ega egaa1242 Roberto Herrera 0 - absent Bole-Richard (1983)
Evenki even1259 Tim Witte 0 - absent Nedjalkov (1997:23)
Glavda glav1244 Johanna Nickel 0 - absent Buba & Owens (2007:671) The order
of constituents is the same only in some subordinate clauses, namely in
relative clauses. However, the word order in complement clauses is SV (see
e.g. examples 94 c) and d)).
Gofa gofa1235 Giada Falcone 0 - absent Moreno (1938:43-46) It is not
overtly stated but the orther in subordinates seems to differ when looking
at the exemples
Hadza hadz1240 Richard Kowalik 0 - absent Niklas Edenmyr, p.c.
Ik ikkk1242 Nataliia Neshcheret 0 - absent Schrock (2014:493-494)
Ingush ingu1240 Nataliia Neshcheret 0 - absent Nichols (2011:673)
Juang juan1238 Tim Witte 0 - absent Manideepa Patnaik (2008:546): Juang. In
G. D. S. Anderson (ed.) The Munda Languages. Routledge Language Family
Series. London: Routledge. 508-556. There is an example of a relative
clause with an OSV-order.
Kangaki-Kagbaaga-Kajoko Bidyogo bidy1244 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Segerer
2002:64-65, Segerer 2002 However, the pronominal arguments in relative
clauses may be different.
Kerinci keri1250 Tessa Yuditha 0 - absent McKinnon (2011)
Korean kore1280 Jesse Peacock 0 - absent Sohn (1994: 53-77)
Krongo kron1241 Suzanne van der Meer 0 - absent Reh 1985:284, Reh 1985
Kwamera kwam1252 Damian Blasi 0 - absent Lindstrom & Lynch (1994: 33-37)
Lamang lama1288 Kristin Sverredal 0 - absent Wolff (2015:298)
Libyan Arabic liby1240 Nancy Poo 0 - absent Abdunnabi (2000:340) Not
explicitly mentioned; inferred from examples of relative clauses that the
verb must follow the relative pronoun.
Mabaale maba1270 Jakob Lesage 0 - absent Motingea (1996: passim); Tanghe
(1929: passim)
Manda-Matumba mand1423 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Bernander, Rasmus (p.c.
Maung maun1240 Ger Reesink and Ruth Singer Michael Dunn 0 - absent Singer
2006, Singer 2006 In nominalized subordinate clauses the verb must
immediately follow the clause-initial article which nominalizes the clause.
So as a result the verb must precede all NPs (although some occasionally
appear particularly in kinship verb relative clauses). In non-nominalized
subordinate clauses, word order can vary but it is still much more common
for the verb to be the first word of the clause than in main clauses.||Note
that in the nominalised relative clause marked by brackets in the example
the NP object ja kiyap follows the verb||(5-3) ||Ngarri ngatpun-eya-wng
pata ngarrkarrk [pata kurrunp-u-ng ja kiyap]. ||1pl.ex 1pl.ex/3pl-see-PP PL
two PL 3pl/2pl-give-PP MA fish ||We saw the two who gave you the fish.
||(Hinch unpublished) || ||In the example below we can see that the object
of the verb in the nominalised complement clause follows the verb -aka
'throw'||Ngat-pi-n marrmarr [ta ngarry-aka-ka-ø yirrk-apa ||1pl.ex-BE-PP
happy NOMZ 1pl.ex/3MA-throw-KRDP-PR ALL-EMPH1 ||||ja naputjanputjan]. ||MA
deceased's.clothing ||||We feel happy that we got rid of all the dead
person's possessions.||HH Text 2:20||||||Anm-aya-nti [kama-wani-ø maru
mata torch].||2sg/3VE-see-I2 PR.3VE-SIT-NP flash VE torch||Look at the
torch flashing.||(Hewett et. al. 1990)||||If a complement clause is not
nominalised then it is possible for an NP that is a shared argument of the
main and complement clauses to occur between the two clauses. Whether this
noun is specifically part of one clause or the other is difficult to
say.||(5-17) ||Ngapi nganym-aya-n warlk kama-langali-ø. ||1sg
1sg/3VE-see-NP tree PR.3VE-stand-NP || ||I see a tree there.
||Information10 092
Minangkabau mina1268 Tessa Yuditha 0 - absent Crouch (2009)
Murle murl1244 Carolina Kipf and Jana Winkler 0 - absent Arensen (1982:113)
Nihali niha1238 Tim Witte 0 - absent Nagaraja (2014:1-332)
Northern Gumuz gumu1244 Linda Raabe 0 - absent Ahland (2012:408) The order
of constituents is not fixed in main clauses, but it is fixed in relative
Southern Gumuz sout3236 Linda Raabe 0 - absent Ahland (2012:408) The order
of constituents is not fixed in main clauses, but it is fixed in relative
South Wa para1301 Jeremy Collins 0 - absent Seng Mai (2012:24) Word order
varies according to clause type, including which particular subordinator is
Standard Arabic stan1318 Nancy Poo 0 - absent Ryding, Karin C. (2005:323).
A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic. Cambridge: CUP. Not
explicitly mentioned; inferred from examples.
Sundanese sund1252 Tessa Yuditha 0 - absent Müller-Gotama (2001), Kurniawan
(2013), Van Syoc (1959), Hardjadibrata (1985)
Supyire Senoufo supy1237 Hugo de Vos 0 - absent Carlson 1994:488-490,
Carlson 1994 from examples
Swedish swed1254 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Skirgård, Hedvig (p.c. 2014)
Tondi Songway Kiini tond1249 Robert Borges 0 - absent Heath 2005: e.g. 219,
Heath 2005
Turkana turk1308 Suzanne van der Meer 0 - absent Dimmendaal 1983:374,
Dimmendaal 1983
Uduk uduk1239 Hedvig Skirgard 0 - absent Killian, Don (p.c. 2014) The order
in main cluases is not fixed. Relative clauses have a fixed verb-intial
order, complement are more varied in their word order.
Votic voti1245 Nataliia Neshcheret 0 - absent Markus (2011 II:285)

2017-07-20 22:59 GMT+02:00 Emily M. Bender <ebender at uw.edu>:

> Dear all,
> Two students working with me are adding libraries to the Grammar Matrix
> to handled two types of subordinate clauses: those that are modifiers of
> the
> main clause and those that are clausal complements.
> In our review of the literature, we have found that sometimes subordinate
> clauses are marked (in part) by having a different word order from matrix
> clauses,
> but we are only familiar with this from Germanic languages.  In particular
> we know of two patterns:
> (1) German: V2 in the matrix clause and V final in subordinate clauses.
> (2) Swedish: Different position of adverbs in matrix v. subordinate clauses
> with respect to the finite verb.
> Do you know of any other languages that have different constraints on word
> order between matrix and subordinate clauses, and in particular any that
> display patterns other than the two above?
> Many thanks,
> Emily
> --
> Emily M. Bender
> Professor, Department of Linguistics
> Check out CLMS on facebook! http://www.facebook.com/uwclma
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