[Lingtyp] collective action marking

Tianqiao Lu lutianqiao at maonan.org
Wed Jul 25 01:57:49 UTC 2018

Dear Randy,
First of all, the prefix "co-" can be regarded as a sort of plural marker. Daniel was faster than I to mention this. :-) 

The following short list of plural markers (or would-be markers) in Chinese might hopefully help.

The "co-" markers: 合 he-, 共 gong-
合办 heban: co-sponsor
合谋 hemou: co-plot
合计 heji: co-count, think over, also: total n.
合营 heying: co-run (a business), also: joint venture n.
合葬 hezang: co-bury, also: joint burial n.
共度 gongdu: co-spend (time), share (time)
共生 gognsheng: co-live, live together, also: symbiosis n.
共用 gongyong: co-use, share (things)
共有 gongyou: co-possess, co-own, share 
共振 gongzhen: co-vibrate, resonate

The "mutually/reciprocally" marker: 互 hu-, 相 xiang-
互补 hubu: mutually-help, complement
互访 hufang: mutually-visit, exchange visits
互让 hurang: mutually-give way, also: mutual concession n.
互通 hutong: mutually-access, exchange (information)
互助 huzhu: mutually-help
相爱 xiang'ai: mutually-love, love each other
相伴 xiangban: mutually-accompany, accompany
相比 xiangbi: mutually-compare, compare with, match
相称 xiangchen: mutually-fit, match, live up to
相待 xiangdai: mutually-treat, treat each other

Tianqiao Lu
Jiangsu Normal Universty

------------------ Original ------------------
From:  "Daniel Ross"<djross3 at gmail.com>;
Date:  Wed, Jul 25, 2018 02:29 AM
To:  "LINGTYP at LISTSERV.LINGUISTLIST.ORG"<lingtyp at listserv.linguistlist.org>; "weifeng liu"<175204935 at qq.com>; 

Subject:  Re: [Lingtyp] collective action marking

In English, the (derivational) prefix "co-" seems to have exactly this function, as I pointed out in the previous discussion on this list regarding why I found the proposed term "coexpress(ion)" to be odd because it refers to alternatives rather than collective action. I'm not sure where this has been written about (but probably someone has, maybe for Latin?), and it is derivational, perhaps not fully productive, but it does seem to be able to form new verbs, so it seems to fit here.
(It is interesting to note that at least in more established verbs like "cowrite", they do not strictly require a plural subject-- "I cowrote an article", as long as the context allows for a reasonable interpretation. If you're looking at the typology cross-linguistically that might be an interesting point of variation to consider.)


On Tue, Jul 24, 2018 at 8:11 AM, "Ekkehard König" <koenig at zedat.fu-berlin.de> wrote:
Hi Randy,
 rich information on the reciprocal - sociative/collective polysemy can be
 found in all of the Nedjalkov volumes. A condensed overview is given in
 Chapter 5 of the first volume. (I did a review of the 5 volumes for
 Language, 2011).
 Best wishes,
 > Randy,
 > There is a similar category in Wandala (Frajzyngier 2012),
 > All best,
 > Zygmunt
 > From: Lingtyp <lingtyp-bounces at listserv.linguistlist.org> on behalf of
 > "Randy J. LaPolla" <randy.lapolla at gmail.com>
 > Date: Tuesday, July 24, 2018 at 1:33 AM
 > Cc: weifeng liu <175204935 at qq.com>
 > Subject: [Lingtyp] collective action marking
 > Hi All,
 > A student in China (Liu Weifeng) working on Kyrgyz asked me for references
 > about collective marking on the verb. This marking in Kyrgyz (-ish-) is
 > distinct from plural marking, and used together with plural marking, and
 > implies the action was done by two or more people together rather than
 > individually.
 > I am aware of the following article, though do not have access to it, and
 > don’t even know know for sure whether it documents this phenomenon:
 > Nedjalkov, Vladimir P. 2007. Reciprocals, assistives and plural in
 > Kirghiz. In Nedjalkov, Vladimir (with the assistance of Emma Geniusiene
 > and Zlatka Guentcheva) (eds.), Typology of reciprocal constructions,
 > 1231-1280. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
 > I don't know of any other works on this type of category in any language.
 > Has this been looked into in any languages?
 > Thanks!
 > Randy
 > -----
 > Randy J. LaPolla, PhD FAHA (羅仁地)
 > Professor of Linguistics and Chinese, School of Humanities
 > Nanyang Technological University
 > HSS-03-45, 14 Nanyang Drive | Singapore 637332

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