[Ads-l] cocalero - 1963, Anglicized c. 1989

Benjamin Barrett gogaku at IX.NETCOM.COM
Mon Jul 13 20:50:37 UTC 2015

Pope Francis 'did not chew coca in Bolivia'
BBC News website

Bolivia's left-wing President Evo Morales began his political life as 
the leader of the cocaleros, traditional coca leaf producers.

Wiktionary has this at https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cocalero: A grower 
of coca leaves in Peru or Bolivia

The Oxford Dictionary has it as Spanish, listing it as a Bolivian and 
Peruvian adjective and noun at 
https://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/spanish/cocalero, and 
saying it is an adjective at 

1989 seems to about when this word underwent Anglicization. Citation six 
below is the first instance I found that appears to neither provide a 
definition or use italics for the word.

1. Google date 1963
The Lost World of Quintana Roo
by Michel Peissel
Italicized four times

p. 97
But, strange as it may seem, no foreigner--at least on record or in the 
living memory of the _cocaleros_--had come down the coast at all.

p. 243
I could still take thought only for the problems of the jungle, for my 
friends of Tulum and the lonely _cocaleros_.

p. 274
... the entire coast and all the _cocaleros_ from Puha to Xcalak, ... 
especially when many of the _cocaleros_ had gathered in ...

2. Google date 1979
Terrorism: documents of international and local control, Volume 34
by Robert A. Friedlander, Howard S. Levie, Donald J. Musch, Yonah Alexander
Not italicized

p. 105
Most other incidents were thought to be perpetrated by illegal coca 
growers ("cocaleros"), including using snipers against security forces...

3. Google date 1981
The Peasants of El Dorado: Conflict and Contradiction in a Peruvian 
Frontier Settlement
by Robin Shoemaker
Italicized once and then not, definition expanded
by _cocaleros_ (coca cultivators and traders) represents the earliest 
form of colonization. It was the cocaleros who opened the first trails 
joining the highland and jungle regions of central Peru.

4. Google date 1989
The general and the cocaleros
in the Economist

5. Google date 1989
U.S. Government anti-narcotics activities in the Andean regi [sic]

p. 129
Peru is getting in [illegible] Bolivian "cocaleros" [illegible]

p. 130
... the Shining Path and the cocaleros, and then it lost both.

6. Google date 1989
Drug Control in the Americas
William O. Walker

Simply put, Matta and other drug traffickers as well as leftist 
guerrillas have become folk heroes among the campesinos, cocaleros, and 
others they employ or endeavor to protect from the arbitrary actions of 
purportedly oppressive authority.

Benjamin Barrett
Formerly of Seattle, WA

Learn Ainu! https://sites.google.com/site/aynuitak1/home

The American Dialect Society - http://www.americandialect.org

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