[Ads-l] cocalero - 1963, Anglicized c. 1989
gogaku at IX.NETCOM.COM
Mon Jul 13 20:50:37 UTC 2015
Pope Francis 'did not chew coca in Bolivia'
BBC News website
Bolivia's left-wing President Evo Morales began his political life as
the leader of the cocaleros, traditional coca leaf producers.
Wiktionary has this at https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cocalero: A grower
of coca leaves in Peru or Bolivia
The Oxford Dictionary has it as Spanish, listing it as a Bolivian and
Peruvian adjective and noun at
saying it is an adjective at
1989 seems to about when this word underwent Anglicization. Citation six
below is the first instance I found that appears to neither provide a
definition or use italics for the word.
1. Google date 1963
The Lost World of Quintana Roo
by Michel Peissel
Italicized four times
But, strange as it may seem, no foreigner--at least on record or in the
living memory of the _cocaleros_--had come down the coast at all.
I could still take thought only for the problems of the jungle, for my
friends of Tulum and the lonely _cocaleros_.
... the entire coast and all the _cocaleros_ from Puha to Xcalak, ...
especially when many of the _cocaleros_ had gathered in ...
2. Google date 1979
Terrorism: documents of international and local control, Volume 34
by Robert A. Friedlander, Howard S. Levie, Donald J. Musch, Yonah Alexander
Most other incidents were thought to be perpetrated by illegal coca
growers ("cocaleros"), including using snipers against security forces...
3. Google date 1981
The Peasants of El Dorado: Conflict and Contradiction in a Peruvian
by Robin Shoemaker
Italicized once and then not, definition expanded
by _cocaleros_ (coca cultivators and traders) represents the earliest
form of colonization. It was the cocaleros who opened the first trails
joining the highland and jungle regions of central Peru.
4. Google date 1989
The general and the cocaleros
in the Economist
5. Google date 1989
U.S. Government anti-narcotics activities in the Andean regi [sic]
Peru is getting in [illegible] Bolivian "cocaleros" [illegible]
... the Shining Path and the cocaleros, and then it lost both.
6. Google date 1989
Drug Control in the Americas
William O. Walker
Simply put, Matta and other drug traffickers as well as leftist
guerrillas have become folk heroes among the campesinos, cocaleros, and
others they employ or endeavor to protect from the arbitrary actions of
purportedly oppressive authority.
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