Grammaticalization of ?say? as a complementizer

Matthew Anstey ansteyfamily at
Mon Feb 17 23:30:52 UTC 2003

Hi Matthew,

There has been a phd on this in Biblical Hebrew:
Miller, Cynthia L. 1996 The representation of speech in biblical Hebrew
narrative : a linguistic analysis. (Harvard Semitic Museum
publications.) Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press.

It includes a (small) section of cross-linguistic evidence from these
languages: ChiBemba (Bantu), Uzbek (Turkic), Urartian, Hausa, Ewe,
Amharic, and Aramaic.

I'm not sure if Coulmas, F. (ed) 1986. Direct and indirect speech.
Berlin: Mouton has anything on this. I haven't seen it myself.


Matthew Anstey
Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
Faculteit der Godgeleerdheid
Residence: Kambah, ACT, Australia
ansteyfamily at
+61 (0)2 6296 4044

> -----Original Message-----
> From: FUNKNET -- Discussion of issues in Functional
> Linguistics [mailto:FUNKNET at] On Behalf Of
> Matthew S. Dryer
> Sent: Tuesday, February 18, 2003 7:21 AM
> To: FUNKNET at
> Subject: Grammaticalization of ?say? as a complementizer
> Dear Funknet,
> I am looking for references bearing on the grammaticalization
> of verbs meaning 'say' as a complementizer.  If you know of
> references other than the following, please let me know.
> The only references I am aware of are
> Cohen, D., Simeone-Senelle, M.-C., and Vanhove, M.  2002. The
> grammaticalization of 'say' and 'do': An areal phenomenon in
> East Africa. In Guldemann, T. & M. von Ronacdor, eds.
> Reported speech: a meeting ground for different linguistic
> domains. [Typological Studies in Language].
> Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
> Heine, Bernard, and Tania Kuteva. 2002.  World lexicon of
> grammaticalization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
> Hopper, Paul J. and Elizabeth Closs Traugott. 1993.
> Grammaticalization.
> Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
> Lord, Carol. 1976.  Evidence for syntactic reanalysis:  From
> verb to complementizer in Kwa.  In Papers from the
> parasession on diachronic syntax. Sanford B. Steever, Carol
> A. Walker, and Salikkoko S. Mufweene, eds.  Chicago:  Chicago
> Linguistic Society.
> Saxena, A. 1988. On the grammaticalization of the verb 'say':
>  A typological and diachronic study.  In S. Delancey and R.
> Tomlin, eds. Papers from the Third Pacific Linguistics
> Conference. Eugene:  University of Oregon.
> Traugott, Elizabeth Closs, and Richard Dasher. 2002.
> Regularity in semantic change.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
> Thanks for any further references
> Matthew Dryer
> dryer at

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