Iteratives M. Greek ksana-

Bernhard Waelchli bernhard.waelchli at ISW.UNIBE.CH
Wed Aug 27 14:18:42 UTC 2003

I am no expert of Modern Greek either (and certainly much less so than Peter),
but I wonder whether ksana is a full lexical item since it occurs
predominantly as a preverb (the usual free expression for 'again' being pali).
Ksana- looks like it derives from a combination of the two preverbs eks- 'out'
and ana- 'up'. Does anybody know whether the instances where ksana is used
detached from the verb (as "a full lexical item") are a case of
demorphologization and how the meaning "again / on another occasion" might
have developed from "out up"?

Anyway, the rather emphatic meaning "on another occasion" of ksana(-) seems to
correlate with its low text frequency in comparison with repetitive-regressive-
iterative-semeliterative-reversionary-RE-"do again" expressions (or what you
like to call them) in some other languages (Yanesha', Mapudungun, Navajo,
Seneca, Adyghe, Lezgian, Lahu). Interestingly, frequency and form (affix vs.
free form) do not always go together here. Lahu, for instance, has an
unaffixed serial verb.

Bernhard Waelchli
University of Berne
bernhard.waelchli at

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