Query on analytic causative verbs

Wolfgang Schulze W.Schulze at LRZ.UNI-MUENCHEN.DE
Wed Mar 28 17:12:51 UTC 2012

Dear Suzanne,
just concerning GIVE-causatives: Mandarin might be another example (but 
I'm not (!) an expert of Mandarin, let others tell more),  cf.

(1)         ge(i         wo(         chi-         le           
yi-           ji-ng
              give       I            eat         ASP      one        shock
'(S/he) gave me a chock' (lit. (s/he) caused me to have (eat) a fright.'

(2)         wo(         ge(i        ni(           ca-i         
ge          míyu(
               I            give       you:SG guess     CL         riddle
'I (will) let you guess a riddle.'

(3)         fángzi    ge(i         tu(fèi                     shao-      le
              house    give       hooligan              burn      ASP
'The house was burned down by the hooligans.'

The Manchu Causative/Passive is probably based on a GIVE-verb, too 
(*bu),  cf.

tere          inenggi  mi-ni                   jakûn     
morin                  hûlha-bu-fi
that          day        1SG-GEN           eight      horse:NOM         
'On that day my eight horses were stolen (by bandits).'

bi                            morin    be          ule-bu-me
1SG:NOM             horse     ACC     drink-CAUS-IPFV:CNV
'I let the horse drink (water).'
'I let the horse drink (water).'

Not to forget: The Udi (East Caucasian) causative -de- is a shortened 
form of Caucasian Albanian daghe- 'to give'.

I have given the relevant references in the summary of a discussion we 
had some months ago on this list (http://www.lrz.de/~wschulze/causpass.pdf).

Best wishes,

Am 28.03.2012 17:09, schrieb Suzanne Kemmer:
> Hi all,
> I have been queried about something I wrote a long time ago, and I did not
> document the facts well enough to easily find more examples of a particular kind.
> Does anyone know of any languages in which the causative verb in an analytic causative construction
> is a verb literally meaning 'give'?    The example I came across in fieldwork and mentioned in my
> paper with Arie Verhagen is:   Luo MIYO  'give' which is used as an analytic causative verb.
> The easiest way to sum up the analytic causative construction I am talking about
> is:   [  Causer    V(of causation)    Causee      V    (Patient)   ]  .
> Examples include English 'I made her laugh'  and the French FAIRE causative.
> Case marking/grammatical relations of the participants  can vary across languages; word order can vary.  The second verb - the
> one with the variable lexical content, which expresses a predicate of result in this construction -- may or may not be finite, and if non-finite may or may not have an infinitive marker.
> The range of meanings of the construction should include  'X made Y do something'/ 'X caused Y to do something'.
> The reason:
> I am aware that some languages do not sharply distinguish 'strict causation' from
> other force dynamic configurations like allowing or ordering; such meanings are often found with such constructions as well as  'strict causation'.
> 'Strict causation', which I have often been told is the only interpretation of such constructions that is typologically relevant, means causation
> as logicians define it:   The caused predicate follows the causing predicate (or its associated specific action) in time;  and, supposedly, it would not have taken place had not X done something unspecified that is expressed schematically by the causing predicate.
> Since many linguists are most interested in this 'logical' causation, I wanted to make sure examples of the construction include the meaning 'make Y do'.    Not just  'let Y do', 'order Y to do' , etc.
> Thanks for any help!
> Suzanne Kemmer



*Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schulze *


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