Query on analytic causative verbs

Timur Maisak timur.maisak at GMAIL.COM
Thu Mar 29 06:49:51 UTC 2012


Dear Suzanne,
causative construction with 'give' is also found in East Caucasian language
Kryz (aka Kryts), cf. Authier 2009: 305-307, where it is called
"factitive". The construction is used with transitive verbs; the verb has
the infinitive form, the causer is in the ergative (-E). 'Do' is used as a
causative auxiliary with intransitive verbs (which take the form of verbal
adjective, -A). Cf. an example with the GIVE-causative from the
DO-causative:

a-n-ir    a-n-van        q’usi             vu-b-tal-a        v-ar-iz
 vu-du
3-H-E   3-H-ADR     craddle.F    PV-F-rock-A  F-do-INF   give-AOR.F
Il/elle lui a fait balancer le berceau.
(Authier, Gilles. 2009. Grammaire Kryz (langue caucasique d’Azerbaïdjan,
dialecte d’Alik). Paris: Peeters.)

Some examples of GIVE > CAUSATIVE grammaticalization path are also given in
Heine & Kuteva's "World Lexicon of Grammaticalization".

Timur Maisak

Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences
http://lingvarium.org/maisak/


28 марта 2012 г. 21:12 пользователь Wolfgang Schulze <
W.Schulze at lrz.uni-muenchen.de> написал:

>  Dear Suzanne,
> just concerning GIVE-causatives: Mandarin might be another example (but
> I'm not (!) an expert of Mandarin, let others tell more),  cf.
>
> (1)         gěi         wŏ         chī         le           yī
> jīng
>              give       I            eat         ASP      one        shock
> '(S/he) gave me a chock' (lit. (s/he) caused me to have (eat) a fright.'
>
> (2)         wŏ         gěi        nĭ           cāi         ge          míyŭ
>               I            give       you:SG guess     CL         riddle
> 'I (will) let you guess a riddle.'
>
> (3)         fángzi    gěi         tŭfèi                     shaō      le
>              house    give       hooligan              burn      ASP
> 'The house was burned down by the hooligans.'
>
> The Manchu Causative/Passive is probably based on a GIVE-verb, too (*bu),
> cf.
>
> Passive:
> tere          inenggi  mi-ni                   jakûn
> morin                  hûlha-bu-fi
> that          day        1SG-GEN           eight      horse:NOM
> steal-PASS-PFV:CNV
> 'On that day my eight horses were stolen (by bandits).'
>
> Causative:
> bi                            morin    be          ule-bu-me
> 1SG:NOM             horse     ACC     drink-CAUS-IPFV:CNV
> 'I let the horse drink (water).'
> 'I let the horse drink (water).'
>
> Not to forget: The Udi (East Caucasian) causative -de- is a shortened form
> of Caucasian Albanian daghe- 'to give'.
>
> I have given the relevant references in the summary of a discussion we had
> some months ago on this list (http://www.lrz.de/~wschulze/causpass.pdf).
>
> Best wishes,
> Wolfgang
>
> Am 28.03.2012 17:09, schrieb Suzanne Kemmer:
>
> Hi all,
>
> I have been queried about something I wrote a long time ago, and I did not
> document the facts well enough to easily find more examples of a particular kind.
>
> Does anyone know of any languages in which the causative verb in an analytic causative construction
> is a verb literally meaning 'give'?    The example I came across in fieldwork and mentioned in my
> paper with Arie Verhagen is:   Luo MIYO  'give' which is used as an analytic causative verb.
>
> The easiest way to sum up the analytic causative construction I am talking about
> is:   [  Causer    V(of causation)    Causee      V    (Patient)   ]  .
>
> Examples include English 'I made her laugh'  and the French FAIRE causative.
>
> Case marking/grammatical relations of the participants  can vary across languages; word order can vary.  The second verb - the
> one with the variable lexical content, which expresses a predicate of result in this construction -- may or may not be finite, and if non-finite may or may not have an infinitive marker.
>
> The range of meanings of the construction should include  'X made Y do something'/ 'X caused Y to do something'.
>
> The reason:
> I am aware that some languages do not sharply distinguish 'strict causation' from
> other force dynamic configurations like allowing or ordering; such meanings are often found with such constructions as well as  'strict causation'.
> 'Strict causation', which I have often been told is the only interpretation of such constructions that is typologically relevant, means causation
> as logicians define it:   The caused predicate follows the causing predicate (or its associated specific action) in time;  and, supposedly, it would not have taken place had not X done something unspecified that is expressed schematically by the causing predicate.
> Since many linguists are most interested in this 'logical' causation, I wanted to make sure examples of the construction include the meaning 'make Y do'.    Not just  'let Y do', 'order Y to do' , etc.
>
> Thanks for any help!
> Suzanne Kemmer
>
>
>
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