14.688, Qs: Language and AI, Stress in English

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Mon Mar 10 23:39:11 UTC 2003

LINGUIST List:  Vol-14-688. Mon Mar 10 2003. ISSN: 1068-4875.

Subject: 14.688, Qs: Language and AI, Stress in English

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Date:  Mon, 10 Mar 2003 10:24:31 +0000
From:  Billy Clark <b.clark at mdx.ac.uk>
Subject:  language and AI discussion lists

Date:  Mon, 10 Mar 2003 16:03:20 +0900
From:  "sm-myoga" <sm-myoga at hyper.ocn.ne.jp>
Subject:  query

-------------------------------- Message 1 -------------------------------

Date:  Mon, 10 Mar 2003 10:24:31 +0000
From:  Billy Clark <b.clark at mdx.ac.uk>
Subject:  language and AI discussion lists

I've just been asked whether I know of weblists or email discussion
lists which focus on language and AI. Does anyone know of any relevant
lists I could pass on?

Best wishes,


Billy Clark,
Middlesex University,
White Hart Lane,
London N17 8HR.
Email: b.clark at mdx.ac.uk

-------------------------------- Message 2 -------------------------------

Date:  Mon, 10 Mar 2003 16:03:20 +0900
From:  "sm-myoga" <sm-myoga at hyper.ocn.ne.jp>
Subject:  query

The Topic: in here

Dear Linguists,

I would like to know the stress pattern for "in here" in (1).

(1) It's hot in here.

I assume that "in here" constitutes a certain group, together with "in
there," "out here" and "out there."  Here we exclude out of
consideration "over [here/there], " "up [here/there]" and "down
[here/there]" in order to prevent our survey from going unnecessarily

The possible patterns are the following two:

(2) a. IN + HERE
     b. in + HERE

Where the word(s) represented by capital letters are supposed to receive a
(We must admit that something like "It's cold UP there" suggests we might
need to consider the pattern "In + here," but we do not deal with this for
the same reason mentioned above.)

Our survey is about:

Which pattern do you choose ONLY for (1)?

I would like you to exclusively pay your attention to (1).

This is just because "in here" could be highly ambiguous in some other
cases, say, (3) and bring us nowhere as a result.
(It may be safely said that "in here" and the like can show different
behavior, depending on whether they co-occur with the "be"-predicate or not,
but here again, I would like you to exclusively pay your heed to (1).  We
are just hoping to forestall any possible misleading deviation).

(3) Lisa works in here.

I have suspected that the combination of "in" and "here" in (1) is that of
ADVERB and ADVERB, as we will see below.

(4) Your money is [there(,) on the table].

In a word, the combination in question takes the stress pattern of (2a).

Then it all figures that "in" receives a stress.

That is what I have thought.
I am startled, however, when I find that some native speakers of English
assert that "in" is a preposition and "here" is a noun.  To my great regret,
I have not successfully got their responses about their stress pattern for
(1).  What is just as surprising, some dictionaries accept (2a), without
giving us any example sentence to prove their point.

This is why I have decided to make a survey.

Here is supposed to be the end of my message since I personally think
information concerning the stress pattern for (1) is simply enough to help
us judge the structure of "in here" in (1).

I would as much appreciate it, though, if you would offer any help and
comments for the followings.

I think that unlike (5b), "here" in (5a) is not a noun.

(5) a. It's hot in here. [=1]
     b. We can see Mt. Fuji from here.

Merriam-Webster says that "here" as a noun means "this place."  (5b) and
(6b) are interchangeable, but (5a) and (6a) do not mean the same.

(6) a. It's hot in this place.
     b. We can see Mt. Fuji from this place.

If "here" in (5a) were to be a noun, we could very well expect it to move
somewhere else: to the COMP position (7a); to the focus position (7b).  We
could also predict that "here," together with its presumed head "in," can
appear in the subject position:(7c) and (7d).

(7) a. Where is it hot (*in)?
        cf. Where are we (at)?
     b. It is just here where it is hot (*in).
     c. [*In here/Here] is a place where it is hot.
     d. [*In here/Here] is a good place to hide your money.
        cf. Under the bed is a good place to hide your money.

I will bet that none passes muster.  If not, the negative results would give
us another pieces of still more persuasive evidence for (2a).

My e-mail address is:
sm-myoga at hyper.ocn.ne.jp

I  will send my summary to anyone who has offered their help and comments as
well as to this board.

Thank you in advance
Best regards
Seiichi MYOGA

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