OP u- and udhu- Verbs

Koontz John E John.Koontz at colorado.edu
Sat Nov 13 20:43:41 UTC 2004

Here's the inflectional pattern for u-verbs in Omaha Ponca:

ua'ne 'I seek it' 90:17.6
udha'ne 'you seek him' 90:283.4
una'=bi=ama 'he sought him' 90:265.18
aNgu'na=i 'we seek him' 90:385.19

u'agittaN 'I put on my own (shoes)' 90:43.9
ua'ttaN 'I am putting on (a shoe?  shoes?)' 90:45.6
u'dhattaN=z^i 'you have not put them on (shoes)' 90:45.6
u'ne maNdhiN ama 'he was seeking them' 90:561.11
u'na=i 'they sought them' 90:419.18
aN'guna=i 'we hunted them' 90:434.2

The references are to Dorsey, of course.  I tried to stick with the stem
u...ne' 'to seek, hunt (for)', but had to slip in some from u...ttaN' 'to
put on shoes' and u...gi'ttaN 'to put on one's own shoes'.   I've included
one anomalous 'I > them' form that is probably an 'I > it' form or

Sample u'-nouns, presumably u'- < *wo'-:

u'z^iha 'sack' 90:17.10
u't?e 'death; means or cause or place of death' 90:23.6
u'?iN 'pack(s)'
u'nase '(a) surround; chasing (hunting) place' 90:44.1, 90:45.5
u's^kaN 'deed' 90:58.16

Inflection of udhu-verbs:

udhu'ahe 'I followed her' 90:199.18
udhu'dhahe 'you follow her' 90:194.6
udhu'ha=bi=ama 'he followed them (elk)' 90:72.7
udhu'ha=bi=ama 'she followed it (a trail)' 90:290.7
aNdhaN'guhe=tta=i=the 'we will follow it (the trail)' 90:438.17

wiu'akkie" 'I spoke to him (?) [(?) in orig.] about it' 91:120.13
wi'udhakkie 'you talked to them about it' 90:484.3
wi'udhagina' 'you told them about their own' 90:764.1
wi'uha=bi=ama 'he followed them (trails)' 90:149.8
wiu'ha=i 'they followed them' 90:440.1
wiaN'guha=i 'we followed them (trails)' 90:419.14

I've tried to stick to the stem udhu'...he 'to follow (something) by means
of; to follow a trail/tracks', but I had to supplement from udhu'...kkie
'to talk to someone about something' and udhu'...gidha 'to tell one's own
about something' (maybe 'to tell someone about their own').  There is some
variation in the marking (or occurrence) of accent in the wi'u- < *wa-i-o-
and wiaN'gu- < *wa-i-uNk-o- sequences.  I think this is just variation in
handling wii'u- and wii'aN-, both in essence a three-mora diphthong.

Interesting as showing also the second person object:

aNdhaN'gudhihe aNgaN'dha=i 'we wish to follow you (in your deeds)' 90:735.15

Anomalous are:

aNwaN'ha 'we followed their trail' 90:440.16
we'uhe aNmaN'dhiN=i 'following them we walked' 90:419.15

By the by, I found the following verb:

udhu'haN=bi=ama 'he cooked together (turnips and paunch)' 90:256.14

This is, of course, the non-reflexive underlying stem for 'pepper'.

uhaN' 'to cook something' (cf. 90:21.13)
> u'haN 'to cook things' (cf. 90:112.10)
udhu'haN 'to cook one thing with another' (cf. 90:256.14)
> wi'uhaN 'to cook things together' (not in the texts)
ukki'haN 'to cook for oneself' (cf. 90:181.13)
> u'kkihaN 'to cook things for oneself' (not in texts)
udhu'kkihaN 'to cook together for oneself' (not in texts)
> wi'ukkihaN 'to cook things together for oneself' (not in hte texts)

The forms with the ">" are the wa-forms.  It is mostly not possible to
distinguish wa 'them' from wa 'things, detransitivizer' in OP, as far as I
can see, except that with dh-stems, wa- 'them' seems to be accented.

In the context the analysis this last is more like 'something cooked
together with other things for oneself', which, modulo the complicating
benefactive reflexive, is just what Rory concluded.

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