OP Reflexive Morpheme Examples

Koontz John E John.Koontz at colorado.edu
Wed Nov 17 08:38:59 UTC 2004

First, an apology to everyone to whom I may have been offensively
sarcastic in my wording today.  I didn't notice the sarcasm or perceive
its offensiveness it until later.  However, poorly chosen phrases have
been surfacing from my memory all evening.  It's something I need to work

Inspired by the examples from Jan and then Regina, I thought I ought to
look for cases of the same reflexive verb used non-benefactively and
benefactively in OP.  I did find that at least 'make' can be used that

Recall that the reflexive prefix in OP is kki- ~ kkig-.  The final -g
allomorph occurs before stop-stems (like gaghe 'to make') and dh-stems.
The latter are like y-stems in Dakotan.

Transitive readings:

a'z^i     aNkki'kkaghe      aNga'dhe
different we make ourselves we go
we go along making ourselves different
jod 90:236.18

ha'hadaN kkikka'gha=   ga
ready    make yourself IMP
jod 90:519.8

sa'be=xti  kkikka'ghe=     xti=aN=bi=ama
very black he made himself he very
jod 90:88.3

hiNxpe'      kkikka'gha=i
fine feather he made himself
he made himself into a down feather
jod 90:151.8-9

Benefactive readings:

maN'   aNkki'kkaghe=tte
arrows let us two make them for ourselves
jod 90:84.16

There are lots of benefactive examples.  I could see some of the
"non-benefactive" cases being considered benefactive, too, where the thing
"made" is a personal quality.

For other verbs I don't have any oppositions so far, but I suspect they
exist.  Here are verbs wih one use or the other observed.

Sample "regular" reflexive readings:

it opened itself
jod 90:62.10

a'gaxdhe      kkigdhisaNdha=bi=ama
with the wind he turned himself around
he changed courses walking into the wind
jod 90:71.13-14

kkimu'gdhaN          agdha'=bi=ama
stealing himself off he went homeward
jod 90:101.3-4

Reciprocal readings:

tti'gaghe       z^u'=kkigdhe=             hnaN=bi=ama
playing (house) they were with each other constantly
jod 90:148.16

akki'wa kkigdhaN'=              hnaN=bi=ama
both    they reviled each other invariably
jod 90:148.17

kkittaN'be=xti             gaN naNz^iN'=bi=ama
looking hard at each other so  they stood
jod 90:277.4

Note that there are lots of reciprocal verbs with kkikki, but I think
these occur because many verbs with a somewhat reciprocal base sense have
one kki as part of the stem and then can add another kki to emphasize
that.  For example, a...kkippa 'to meet someone', but a...kkikkippa 'to
meet each other'.

Benefactive readings:

ma's^aN  ua'kkine
feathers I hunt (them) for myself
jod 90:25.1

we'dadhe      i'kkikkuha=bi=           egaN
to give birth he feared it for himself having
jod 90:39.10

haN'bdhiNge aNkki'?a=i
beans       we hoed (them) for ourselves
jod 90:58.7-8

I roasted the collection for myself
jod 90:63.4

ttanu'kka  he'be akki'ppad=egaN=     tte= ha
fresh meat piece I cut up for myself will DECL
jod 90:72.16

tti'   a'kkie=ama=tta we'kkigdhixe                   adhe     idha=bi=ama
lodges thick  the to  to seek assistance for herself to go to she spoke of
jod 90:110.7-8


I didn't happen on any suus forms with reflexive benefacive readings, but
(a) I didn't go very far into Dorsey on each particular pass, and (b)
Dorsey's texts tend to use very stylized glosses, and he may never gloss a
suus form reflexively through on that basis, even where such a gloss would
be the most natural one.  I'm satisfied that such examples must exist.


I wonder if the term to characterize verbs that support benefactive
reflexive clauses is something like factive or factitive?  I'm looking for
the phrase that means 'verbs that express a process of producing something
(for someone, perhaps oneself)'.  Maybe also 'getting something'.  It
looks like factitive might actually be the opposite of what I want - it
seems to mean somethign like 'making something have a certain quality',
which is where 'make' is properly reflexive.

John E. Koontz

More information about the Siouan mailing list