Dative, etc., Causatives in OP

Koontz John E John.Koontz at colorado.edu
Wed Nov 17 08:53:55 UTC 2004

At Bob's request, here are cases of different dative, etc., variants of
causatives.  I was able to use variations on t?e=dhe 'to kill' ('to make
die') for all the main set of examples.

Basic causative =dhE (like Dakotan =yA)

t?e'=dha=bi=  ama
he killed him (they say)
jod 90:283.12

Dative causative =khidhE (like Dakotan =khiyA)

ni'kkagahi u'z^u     t?e'=dhikhidha=i=       hnaNkha=s^e
chief      principal they killed him for you you the sitting
ye whose principal chief was killed
jod 90:17.1

Reflexive Causative =kkidhe

t?e'=akkidhe=         xti=maN
I have killed myself  I altogether
I have totally done myself in
jod 90:262.11

Reflexive Possessive Causative =gidhe

iz^iN'ge t?e'=gidha=i
his son  he killed his own
jod 90:611.13

I couldn't pass up these examples.

A double causative:

t?e'=kkidhe=              wadhe
die  they make themselves he made them
he made them kill themselves
jod 90:141.11

A reflexive embedded under a causative:

kki?aN'=khidhe=           s^te=aN=bi
he made her paint herself even
(I think this might refer to painting her hair parting.)
jod 90:80.5

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