PMV Nasal Vowel Correspondences (Re: Hawk.)

Koontz John E John.Koontz at
Mon Nov 29 21:00:22 UTC 2004

On Mon, 29 Nov 2004, Koontz John E wrote:
> PS *kyetaNhe ~ *kyetuNhe 'hawk'
> ...  (the uN vowels in IO and Wi are unexpected)

Except for the *a > e shift in Winnebago and Ioway-Otoe in final position
after velars and the various vexed final-position sets due to morphology,
Siouan vowel correspondences are pretty much whatever > same thing.  This
is certainly very odd from a perspective of European linguistic history!

The main exception is the Great Dhegiha Vowel Shift (to invent a name for
it) in which u > u-umlaut (Osage, Kaw) > i (OP, Quapaw), and o > u (OP).
In some cases Kaw may have u-umlaut for *i.  There some tendency for
initial o > u in IO and Quapaw, too, if I remember correctly.  As far as
Dorsey is concerned *aN, *uN > aN, too.  In some sources this merged vowel
is written oN and it is perhaps dialect-variable, certainly language
variable.  More recent scholars (Rankin, Quintero) have noticed that there
may actually be some degree of aN : oN contrast in at least Kaw and Osage,
presumably recording *aN :  *uN.  Some of this coincided with x vs. gh
effects on neighboring vowels in OP, but maybe not all of it.

There are some cases of *e, *o > i, u in the Crow-Hidatsa and Southeastern
peripheries, too, I guess.

However, there are also some oddities like the *kyetVNh-e 'small hawk'
set.  Normally, thanks to the GDVS for PMV : Da : Dh : WiIO we get *aN :
aN : aN : aN and *uN : uN :  aN : uN, but there are a few cases of *??? :
aN : aN : uN as in this set, e.g., PS *kyetuN(he) : Da c^hetaN : OP
gdhedaN :  IO greduN.  Note that the -d- in the IO form is one of those
generally written with the letter t.

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