Jessup Whitehead's STEWARD'S HANDBOOK & GUIDE (1893)

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Sun Apr 30 04:56:38 UTC 2000

    Jessup Whitehead's THE STEWARD'S HANDBOOK AND GUIDE (Chicago, 1893) is an
overlooked American culinary masterpiece.
    It's not cited in John Mariani's ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN FOOD & DRINK.
The OED hasn't cited it (that I can see).
    It's in several parts:

PART FIRST.  Hotel Stewarding/ Showing the internal workings of the American
system of hotel keeping/ The Steward's Duties/ in detail and in relation to
other heads of departments./ Steward's Storekeeping, Steward's Bookkeping,/
and management of help./ also, Composition of Bills of Fare./ The reasons
why, and numerous illustrative menus of meals on the American plan.

PART SECOND.  Restaurant Stewarding/ comprising a survey of various styles
of/ Restaurants and Their Methods./ Club stewarding and catering./ Public
Party Catering, Ball Suppers,/ Base Ball Lunches, Hotel Banquets, Etc./ How
to prepare and how to serve them; with numerous pattern bills of fare carried
out to quantities, cost and price per head.

PART THIRD.  Catering for Private Parties/ A Guide to Party Catering./
Wedding Breakfasts, Fantasies of Party Givers,/ Model Small Menus and
Noteworthy Suppers,/ with prices charged./ also, Catering on a Grand Scale/
original and selected examples of mammoth catering operations, showing the
systems followed by the largest catering establishments in the world./ also,
a disquisition on Head Waiters and Their Troops.

PART FOURTH.  Whitehead's Dictionary of Dishes/ Culinary Terms and Various
Information Pertaining to the Steward's Department, Being the/ Essence of all
Cook Books,/ telling in brief what all dishes and sauces are, or what they
should look like.  What materials are needed for and what they are.  How to
use to advantage all sorts of abundant provisions, or how to keep them./
containing, also, A Valuable Collection of Restaurant Specialties,
Distinctive National Cookery, remarks on adulterations, and how to detect
them, treatment and service of wine/ and a fund of curious and useful
information in dictionary form, for stewards, caterers, chefs, bakers, and
all hotel and restaurant keepers.

APPENDIX.  How to Fold Napkins.

     The most important part is the Dictionary of Dishes, which goes from
page 227 to page 464.  It should be picked clean by the OED.  There is a
"copyright 1889" for this Dictionary.  There are interesting menus in the
first part, plus fascinating tidbits all throughout.  Here goes:

Pg. 225, col. 1, "A Chinese Dinner in New York."--Tchowmien macaroni, flout
stewed with chicken, celery and mushrooms.  (Mariani's chow mein states "The
word first appears in print in 1900"--ed.)

Pg. 227, col. 1--ABERDEEN SANDWICHES--Hot sandwiches of fried bread in rounds
like silver dollars, spread with minced chicken or other meats well seasoned.

Pg. 229, col. 1--ADAM'S APPLE--The banana; supposed by some to be the fruit
of which Adam ate.

Pg. 230, col. 1--ALBANY CAKES--The same batter as for "popovers," baked in
shallow pans to make a thin muffin.  Hot for breakfast.

Pg. 232, col. 2--ALPHABET PASTES--For soup; the same paste as macaroni and
spaghetti, but stamped into very small letters or ornamental shapes which
swell in boiling.  Can be bought in packages, one pound or less.  Not
expensive.  (Mariani on alphabet soup: "The term saw print in 1934"--ed.)

Pg. 233, col. 1--AMBROSIA--Literally food for the gods; a bowl of sliced
oranges and pineapples, grated cocoanut, sugar and wine.  (Mariani has

Pg. 243, col. 2--BABA--Polish cake in common use...

Pg. 251, col. 2--BERLIN PANCAKES (Ger.: _Berlinen Pfannkuchen_)--Are known in
this country as _Bismarks_(DARE 1930--ed.); in France as _Beignets a
l'Allemande_.  They are (Pg. 252--ed.) rich yeast-raised doughnuts, having a
spoonful of preserve inside; are nearly round.  Like all doughnuts they are
fried in lard and rolled in sugar when done.  In Poland they have the same by
the name of _Ponskis_.

Pg. 280, col. 1--CHINESE CHOP SOLY--a savory _rgout_, known as chop soly, is
as much the national dish of China as is the _pot au feu_ of France or the
_olla podrida_ of Spain.  Its main components are pork, bacon, chicken,
mushrooms, bamboo shoots, onions, and pepper.  These are the characteristic
ingredients; other incidental ones are (col. 2--ed.) duck, beef, perfumed
turnip, salted black beans, sliced yam, peas, and string beans.  No doubt a
curious and wonderful compound, but one that may be palatable withal.

Pg. 283, col. 2--CLAM CHOWDER--The same thing with clams as fish chowder.
TUNNISON CLAM CHOWDER--A seaside hotel-keeper's specialty; a chowder
containing tomatoes and herbs, such as thyme, marjoram and parsley in
addition to the regular ingredients.  "Sam Ward" used to say: "Don't put salt
pork in your clam chowder."  CONEY ISLAND CLAM CHOWDER--Like the foregoing; a
thick soup or thin stew containing tomatoes, clams, onions, potatoes, bay
leaf, herbs, etc., started by frying the main ingredients together until
half-cooked, then adding broth and little wine.  BOSTON CLAM CHOWDER--A
white, thick soup with potatoes, clams, etc.; no tomatoes.

Pg. 287, col. 2--ICED COFFEE--A popular beverage consisting of coffee with
cream and sugar the ordinary way, with shaved ice added; shaken up; imbibed
through a straw.

Pp. 304-307--DRINKS has recipes for Ale Cup, Mulled Claret, Tom and Jerry,
Fanny's Delight, Egg Flip, Wassail Bowl, Gabe Case Punch, Langtry Punch, A
Reviver, Cold Milk Punch, Mint Julep, John Collins, Lemon Squash, Soda
Cocktail, Claret Punch, Gin Sling, Gin Cocktail, Gin Sour, Egg Nogg Iced, Sam
Ward, Corpse Reviver, Prairie Oyster, Gin Punch, Absinthe, Tiger's Milk,
Sauterne Cup, Burgundy Cup, Champagne Cup, Claret Cup, Brandy Champerelle,
Port Negus, Champgane Cocktail, Jersey Cocktail, Bridal Boquet Cup, Liqueur
Eustache, British Lion, Cinderella Cup, Liqueur Supreme, Cask Gingerade,
Jersey Lily Julep, Rose Nectar Julep, Christmas Julep, Moselle Cup A La
Prince De Galle, Punch A La Sandringham, Ypochas, Brandy Punch, Philadelphia
Cooler, Champagne Cup (Saratoga), Cider Cup, Electrical Cocktail, Idlewild
Toddy, Fruit Pyramid, The Steinway, The Daisy, The Maitrank, The Prince of
Wales, Egg-Lemonade, Milk Shake, Charlie Paul, Milk Punch, Washington Punch,
Royal Aquarium Milk-Punch, Athenaeum Claret Cup, Hot Punch, Beer Cup, Pusse
L'Amour, Pousse Cafe, Champerelle, Brand Scaffa, Golden Slipper, Sherry Flip,
Sherry Cobbler, Hari-Kari, Whisky Crusta, Archbishop.  (No Martini or

Pg. 314, col. 1--EGG PLANT A LA TURQUE--_Mussaka_, I leanred, otherwise
_Imam-Buildi_ (which in English means "the High-Priest's Tuck-in") was the
name of it, and the manner of its preparation the following...

Pg. 320, col. 2--FRENCH BREAD--Indefinite.  The bread now called French is in
very long loaves of one thickness from end to end.

Pg. 341, col. 1--HEAVENLY HASH--The curious name for the newest American
fashionable dish: Oranges, bananas, lemons, apples, raisins, and pineapples
are cut up into little bits, worked just enough to thicken their juices, and
then served with a grated nutmeg.  But the serving is the pretty part.  Cut a
hole large (Col. 2--ed.) enough to admit a spoon in the stem end of an
orange, which you empty, then fill with the hash, and serve on a little glass
fruit-dish with lemon or orange leaves.

Pg. 342, col. 1--HOKEY-POKEY ICE CREAM--Italian _Occhi-(Col.
2--ed.)Pocchi_--mixed colors and flavors of ice cream in cakes; one form of
_biscuits glaces_ or ice cakes.

Pp. 343-344--HOT BREWS include Cardinal, Mulled Wines, White Wine Whey, Lait
De Poule, Hot Apple Tea, Yard of Flannel, Wassail Bowl, Loving Cup, Apple
Toddy, Punch, Councillor's Cap, Creoles Skin, Merry Men, Red Pepper Skin, and
Ginger Skin.

Pg. 353, col. 1--JERSEY WONDERS, OR CAKES--Crullers; a rich and crisp sort of
doughnut not made with yeast, not very light...

Pg. 364, col. 2--LOVE IN DISGUISE--Is a calf's heart stuffed, then surrounded
with forcemeat, next rolled in powdered vermicelli, lastly deposited in a
baking dish with little butter and cooked in the oven.  Serve it in the dish
with its own gravy.

Pg. 375, col. 1--MOUSSE (Fr.)--Moss; froth; something very light and spongy.
The term is both to meat preparations and to ice creams; there are _mousses_
of _foie gras_, the softened paste having whipped cream mixed in it and then
made cold, as well as _biscuits glaces_ and _mousses glaces_.

Pg. 376, col. 2--MUSCOVITES--Whipped jellies; Moscow jellies, from whipped
jelly having at first been called Russian jelly.  These are combinations of
jelly and ice cream made by adding gelatine to fruit juice or pulp and
beating on ice till nearly set, then mixing in whipped cream, putting it in a
mould and burying in freezing mixture for 2 or 3 hours.

Pg. 387, col. 1--SOUVALAKIAS--Minced meat balls, like German _klose_...

Pg. 389, col. 2--OSWEGO PUDDING--Corn-starch pudding meringued and baked.
(Not in DARE--ed.)

Pg. 409, col. 1--FRENCH FRIED POTATOES--Raw, cut in 12 or more strips
lengthwise, thrown into hot lard, fried light brown and dry, fine salt.

Pg. 420, col. 2--ROCKY MOUNTAIN OYSTERS--Lambs' fries.

Pg. 422, col.2--In Poland, a similar _mixtum compositum_ is called
"borshtsh," on which the Russian looks down with sovereign contempt.

Pg. 428, col. 2--SALISBURY STEAK--For people with weak or impaired digestion.
 It is the notion of an American physician.  The surface of a round steak is
chopped with a _dull_ knife, the object being not to cut, but to pound the
meat.  As the meat-pulp comes to the top it is scraped off, until at last
nothing is left but the tough and fibrous residue.  The pulp is then made
into cakes and lightly and quickly broiled, so as to leave it almost raw

Pg. 442, col. 1--SNAILS--The "poor man's oyster"...

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