The Phonology and Phonetic Manifestations of the Glottal Stop in Pendau

Waruno Mahdi mahdi at FHI-Berlin.MPG.DE
Thu Dec 9 18:06:41 UTC 1999

Phil, this is very interesting.

> **Pendau has final consonants (unlike most Sulawesi languages) which
> includes most of its consonants, including the glottal stop.

In many languages of Sulawesi, final glottal stop seems to have resulted
from preglottalization of former final consonants through two different
(1) after former unvoiced stops, that stop got deleted, leaving the
    lone glottal stop at word final:
    *-k > *-'k > -' / *-p > *-'p > -' / *-t > *-'t > -'
(2) after voiced stops and non-nasal continuents, an epenthetic
    vowel inserted itself in the final cluster with metathesis of
    the glottal and formerly final consonant:
    *-b > *-'b > -ba' / *-d > *-'d > -da' / *-g > *-'g > -ga' /
    *-s > *-'s > -sa' /
   (_r_ and _l_ seem to be similar, but without my notes I'm not so sure)

In some languages, the choice of the epenthetic vowel (in these examples
_a_) is determined by vowel harmony (it is the same as the vowel of the
originally ultimate syllable). Otherwise, it is typically _a_

In some languages, final nasal fuses with the glottal to _ng_
    *-n > *-'n > -ng / *-m > *-'m > -ng / *-ng > *-'ng > -ng
in others (if I remember correctly) final nasals behave like the
non-nasal continuents sub (2) above, i.e.
    *-n > *-'n > -na' / *-m > *-'m > -ma' / *-ng > *-'ng > -nga'
but, not having my notes with me, I'm not so sure about this latter.
In Makassarese, and perhaps also some others, there seems to be a
difference in the development of original and loaned lexical items.

> belongs).  For example, ['api] and [kapi] 'wing' in Pendau and Ledo
> respectively (note that ['api] 'wing' is a minimal pair with [api] fire in
> Pendau). (full details of these statistics are in the workpaper)

Do I understand this correctly, that Pendau has opposition of glottal
and vocalic attack (like, I believe, in Hawaiian)?
In Malay and in Tagalog, words orthographically having initial vowel
actually have initial glottal stop. In Malay, that glottal is retained
after prefixes not ending in nasal (otherwise it fuses with such a nasal
like other rootmorph-initial voiceless stops).

Salam,   Waruno

Waruno Mahdi                  tel:   +49 30 8413-5411
Faradayweg 4-6                fax:   +49 30 8413-3155
14195 Berlin                  email: mahdi at
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