Quebec Seeks to Ease Divisiveness

Joshua Fishman joshuaafishman at
Tue Apr 15 16:07:48 UTC 2003

Some Examples of Long-lasting (> 3 gens.)
Societal multilingualisms: Basque-Spanish,
Catalan-Spanish, +Swiss German-High German,
+Sanskrit-Hindi, Classical Tamil-vernacular
Tamil, +Kathurevusa-Demotiki, Hebrew-Aramaic,
Yiddish-Hebrew, +Koranic-Vernacular Arabic,
Mandarin-Cantonese, Sicilian-Italian,
Greek-Egyptian demotic. These 12 examples differ
in many ways from each other, including current
stability, genesis-scenarios and functional
allocations, but they have each lasted for well
over 3 generations and are each still going
strong in at least part of their own speech
(+=Fergusonian diglossia)
Joshua A. Fishman
Joshua A. Fishman

--- Survey Coordinator Brazil
<survey_coord_brazil at> wrote:
> Dear Dr. Fishman,
> I'm glad to hear that group bilingualism can
> last indefinitely in many
> cases.  I'm just not aware of many.
> Guarani/Spanish in Paraguay comes to
> mind.  What are the many other cases?
> Stan Anonby

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