[lg policy] Re: lgpolicy-list Digest, Vol 83, Issue 16

Ramanujam Meganathan kankoduthavanithan at gmail.com
Sat Mar 26 03:24:27 UTC 2016


On Mon, Mar 14, 2016 at 10:23 PM, <
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> Today's Topics:
>
>    1. South Africa: SA ?born free? students see the world through
>       the prism of race (Harold Schiffman)
>    2. Musicians in Kosovo fight anti-Roma prejudice (Harold Schiffman)
>
>
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
>
> Message: 1
> Date: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 11:20:07 -0400
> From: Harold Schiffman <hfsclpp at gmail.com>
> Subject: [lg policy] South Africa: SA ?born free? students see the
>         world through the prism of race
> To: lp <lgpolicy-list at groups.sas.upenn.edu>
> Message-ID:
>         <CAB7VSRBRCD0o3JXsiowgZeXaRJKZKyg6x8tkK4P6yTXQ30zp=
> A at mail.gmail.com>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"
>
>  SA    born free    students see the world through the prism of race
>
> Monday 14 March 2016 07:42
>
> The Conversation
>
> White Afrikaans-speaking students and black students traded blows over the
> University of Pretoria   s language policy. (SABC)
> Tags:
>
>    - South Africa
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=South%20Africa>
>    - University students
>    <
> http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=University%20students>
>    - Apartheid
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Apartheid>
>    - Racial issues
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Racial%20issues>
>    - Race relations
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Race%20relations>
>    - Student protests
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Student%20protests>
>    - Racial tensions
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Racial%20tensions>
>    - University of Pretoria
>    <
> http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=University%20of%20Pretoria
> >
>    - Language policy
>    <http://www.sabc.co.za/wps/portal/news/main/tag?tag=Language%20policy>
>
>
>
> Joleen Steyn Kotze
> <http://theconversation.com/profiles/joleen-steyn-kotze-194983>, *Nelson
> Mandela Metropolitan University
> <
> http://theconversation.com/institutions/nelson-mandela-metropolitan-university
> >*
>
>  A university rugby match degenerated into on-field brawls
> <
> http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/watch-ufs-rugby-supporters-clash-with-student-protesters-on-field-20160223
> >
> between black and white students. White Afrikaans-speaking students and
> black students traded blows
> <
> http://www.iol.co.za/news/crime-courts/racial-strife-at-tuks---pics-1988326
> >
> over the University of Pretoria   s language policy.
>
> Some people are astonished that this is happening nearly 22 years after the
> end of formal apartheid and that such clashes often involve the so-called
>   born
> frees    <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-34570761>     young South
> Africans who were born after apartheid ended
> <http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/unit.php?id=65-24E-6> in 1994. But the
> country is undergoing a massive transformation. Race lies at the heart of
> this process, just as it lay at the heart of the apartheid state.
>
> Between 2013 and 2015 a group of colleagues from various universities and I
> conducted research about students    views on political culture, values and
> voting; their perceptions of government policy and quality of life; and
> their impressions of race relations. All were    born frees   .
>
> Our key finding was that university students often fall into the    single
> story
> <
> https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story?language=en
> >
> trap: they tend to ignore the experiences of other individuals or groups
> when constructing an understanding of the country   s political realities.
>
> Political realities are, by their nature, constructed
> <
> http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Political%20discourse%20and%20political%20cognition.pdf
> >.
> In understanding the political discourse of race, then, the    single story
> becomes salient. People construct their political knowledge based on their
> experiences and ideas about individuals and groups. This in turn structures
> group thinking     or single stories     around specific political issues
> and
> actions. On campuses, this would include language policy in higher
> education or the idea that universities must be decolonised.
>
> Our research shows that students    realities are built on single stories
> of
>    the racist   , continued exclusion and stereotypes. Their sense of
> nationhood, of being one, is very fragile. Their political reality is full
> of contradictions: integrated, yet separated; united, yet unreconciled;
> free, yet oppressed; equal, yet unequal.
> Constructing political realities
>
> The data was gathered from about 1,500 students across faculties and
> disciplines at six universities. Some are historically white institutions,
> one catered exclusively for black students during the apartheid era and
> others were created during a merger process
> <http://www.actacommercii.co.za/index.php/acta/article/viewFile/175/172>
> in
> the early 2000s. Participants were all given a survey featuring both
> closed-ended and open-ended questions. On some campuses, these surveys were
> supplemented with focus groups.
>
> So what are the    single stories    that university students tell
> themselves
> about race?
>
> Students place a high value on democratic values like freedom, inclusion,
> equal rights and equal treatment. Concomitantly, there are also high levels
> of intolerance across racial lines based on students    perceptions of
> other
> race groups    access to wealth, better education, jobs and greater
> privilege.
>
> Across the racial board, participants told a    single story    of
> exclusion as
> their lived political reality. White participants said they felt excluded
> by the country   s affirmative action policies
> <
> http://www.labour.gov.za/DOL/legislation/acts/basic-guides/basic-guide-to-affirmative-action
> >
> and measures of redress. They feel they are being excluded from the job
> market. They talked about    reverse apartheid    being directed at white
> South
> Africans.
>
> Black students talked about the country   s racialised patterns of poverty
> and inequality, which they view as a continuation of apartheid oppression.
> Their political reality was one of oppression as seen through the slow pace
> of substantive transformation and a lack of access to quality health care,
> education and basic services.
>
> These    single stories    of exclusion and access exacerbate racial
> tensions.
> Getting along?
>
> When it came to relationships with people of different races, many students
> said they took hope from their own cross-racial friendships and the number
> of interracial romantic couples they know. They believe that non-racialism
> is based on the idea of tolerance. But many said that improving
> relationships across races would be a generational fight, as they believe
> that post-apartheid South Africa is built on a racist culture.
>
> Stereotypes
> <
> http://www.sahrc.org.za/home/21/files/Reports/Investigation%20into%20racial%20stereotype%20in%20th%20emedia.pdf
> >,
> an unwillingness to interact and continued discrimination fuel racial
> intolerance.
> Moving beyond the    single story
>
> As long as the    single story    of exclusion is the main narrative
> describing
> post-apartheid citizenship, the racial dividing line that separates South
> Africans will persist. A divide created by apartheid will remain at the
> heart of South African citizenship.
> [image: The Conversation]
>
> Joleen Steyn Kotze
> <http://theconversation.com/profiles/joleen-steyn-kotze-194983>, Associate
> Professor of Political Science, *Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
> <
> http://theconversation.com/institutions/nelson-mandela-metropolitan-university
> >*
>
> This article was originally published on The Conversation
> <http://theconversation.com>. Read the original article
> <
> https://theconversation.com/south-african-born-free-students-see-the-world-through-the-prism-of-race-56085
> >
> .
>
>
> http://www.sabc.co.za/news/a/1d326a004c06577c82cb8bf0bca466af/SA-born-free-students-see-the-world-through-the-prism-of-race-20160314
>
>
> --
> **************************************
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> ------------------------------
>
> Message: 2
> Date: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 11:34:09 -0400
> From: Harold Schiffman <hfsclpp at gmail.com>
> Subject: [lg policy] Musicians in Kosovo fight anti-Roma prejudice
> To: lp <lgpolicy-list at groups.sas.upenn.edu>
> Message-ID:
>         <CAB7VSRDPMDo6x=
> 6Cgb0KZgZFzu8J+sxDfY6xDJ5Xf8Jm6VbMsw at mail.gmail.com>
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>
> Musicians in Kosovo fight anti-Roma prejudice
> A Path to Progress
>
> A growing movement is using music to challenge negative perceptions of the
> Roma, or gypsy, community in Kosovo.
> By Morgan Meaker, Thomson Reuters Foundation March 11, 2016
>
>
>     PRISTINA, Kosovo     As a child, Kafu had no idea he was Roma. Growing
> up
> in Gjakova, western Kosovo, he was called "gypsy" everywhere he went.
>
> Kafu only discovered what the word Roma meant when he was in his 20s. Now
> 30, he is part of a growing movement that is using music to challenge
> negative perceptions of the Roma community in Kosovo.
>
> As the front man of the band Gipsy Groove, Kafu has shaken off his own
> experiences of discrimination to focus on healing the divides between Roma,
> Albanian, and Serb communities in the Balkans.
> Recommended: Roma 101: Five questions answered about Europe's vilified
> minority
>
> The band has six members, a mixture of Albanian, Turkish, and Roma
> musicians. Together they blend traditional Roma music with jazz, punk, and
> reggae.
> Briefing Roma 101: Five questions answered about Europe's vilified minority
> Photos of the Day Photos of the weekend
>
> "As a band, we're not just doing music because we love it, but as a
> political statement. We want to bring the people together," Kafu told the
> Thomson Reuters Foundation during an interview in a bar in Pristina,
> Kosovo's capital.
>
> Although the Roma community suffers discrimination throughout Europe, in
> Kosovo     where Roma make up 0.5 percent of the population, according to
> the
> CIA World Factbook     there is another dimension to prejudice, a legacy of
> the country's 1998-99 war for independence.
>
> During the conflict, Roma were torn between the two sides, the Albanians
> and the Serbs. Kafu lost family members to both. But after the war, the
> idea spread that Roma communities had sided with the minority Serbs.
>
> For years after the war, Roma in Kosovo faced intimidation and attacks by
> members of the country's ethnic Albanian majority.
> Recommended: Roma 101: Five questions answered about Europe's vilified
> minority
>
> "They [Albanians] would come into our home to check we hadn't stolen
> anything," says Kafu. "My father was paralyzed in one of these attacks. But
> still I cannot hate people."
>
> It took years for the anti-Roma violence to subside. Today, distrust
> lingers, and the Roma in Kosovo still suffer chronic poverty, widespread
> discrimination, and an unemployment rate of more than 90 percent.
>
> In its 2016 world report in January, Human Rights Watch criticized Kosovo's
> treatment of minorities, blaming "a lack of political will, funds and
> cooperation between central and municipal authorities" for their
> marginalization.
>
> Roma children, with drums wedged between their legs, line Pristina's main
> street     Mother Teresa Boulevard     singing, distractedly, for money.
>
> Gipsy Groove's song lyrics reflect the outsider status of the country's
> Roma population. In one song, "Run Away," Kafu sings: "To beg for crumbs to
> the beat of your drum, but not be invited to the dance, in the end you are
> just the gypsy."
>
> Kafu believes that Gipsy Groove's concerts are the first time Roma songs
> have been played in public since the war. In the five years since the band
> formed, it has already succeeded in changing people's perceptions of the
> Roma community.
>
> "They're amazing, just amazing," said 19-year-old Albanian student Plator
> Gashi, who said he had been to every Gipsy Groove gig in Pristina. "They've
> made many people see that Roma are just like us; ordinary people."
>
> In January, another group of Roma musicians, the Jimmy Mustafa Band,
> released their first album on iTunes, with all 10 songs written in the
> Romany language.
>
> Guitarist Jimmy Mustafa, singer Ersad Bunjaku, and drummer Isak Osmani
> all in their 20s     grew up together in Plemetina, a Kosovo village where
> a
> camp was set up in 1999 to shelter the Roma and other minorities displaced
> during or after the war.
>
> "We don't do regular Roma music," said Mustafa, who writes the band's music
> and lyrics. "We want to give something new to people. We combine Roma folk
> with a little bit of pop and rap. We are still experimenting."
>
> To make the album, the band received funding from the Hotel Gra  anica,
> where they play every Sunday, and the Swiss Embassy, which has a budget to
> support minority groups.
>
> Cultural activities can unite people of different backgrounds and challenge
> negative stereotypes, said Anita Schl  chter-Roth, the embassy's deputy
> head
> of mission, although it is just "one part of the puzzle."
>
> For Mustafa, it's important that the music carries a message. "Our track
> 'Robert' is about the discrimination; about unemployment; about how Serbs
> and Albanians get jobs and Roma people don't. We want to raise awareness."
>
> Isak Skenderi, director of the NGO Vorae, which supports Kosovo's
> marginalized communities of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians, helped Jimmy
> Mustafa apply for Swiss funding, but said there were better ways to improve
> Roma rights.
>
> "I don't buy the story that music can be the mechanism to change attitudes.
> It plays into stereotypes     the stereotype that Roma people are good at
> music."
>
> Like many in Kosovo, Kafu is frustrated by the way his country's
> politicians have failed to heal ethnic divides.
>
> But he believes a nation is defined by its culture, not its politics:
> "Right now, artistic movements are showing the good side of Kosovo," he
> said.
>
>     Editing by Ros Russell. This story originally appeared on the website
> of
> the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters that
> covers humanitarian news, women's rights, trafficking, corruption, and
> climate change. Visit www.news.trust.org.
>
> http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Making-a-difference/Change-Agent/2016/0311/Musicians-in-Kosovo-fight-anti-Roma-prejudice
>
>
> --
> **************************************
> N.b.: Listing on the lgpolicy-list is merely intended as a service to its
> members
> and implies neither approval, confirmation nor agreement by the owner or
> sponsor of the list as to the veracity of a message's contents. Members who
> disagree with a message are encouraged to post a rebuttal, and to write
> directly to the original sender of any offensive message.  A copy of this
> may be forwarded to this list as well.  (H. Schiffman, Moderator)
>
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>


-- 


*R  Meganathan*
Department of Education in Languages
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi  110016
Mob: 09968651815
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