[lg policy] Remembering Osmania University’s Contribution to Public Life

Harold Schiffman haroldfs at gmail.com
Mon Apr 16 10:47:59 EDT 2018


 Remembering Osmania University’s Contribution to Public Life

Adapa Satyanarayana (*adapas8 at gmail.com* <adapas8 at gmail.com>)retired from
the Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad.

For over a 100 years Osmania University has been a global centre of
learning that served as a mirror and conscience keeper of society. Through
its history it has not only educated the young, empowering them to find
better employment, but it has also been a space that inculcated radical
ideas in students who fought for systemic change and a more equal society.
The university remains the most important institution for first-generation
students from downtrodden backgrounds in the region. Today, the university
is facing significant challenges, which must be addressed to safeguard this
historic institution.

The author thanks the referee for comments and suggestions. He is also
thankful to Ghanta Chakrapani and K Srinivasulu for their help in writing
this article.

The establishment of Osmania University heralded a new era in the field of
higher education in the erstwhile Hyderabad state, of which the Telangana
region was an integral part. On the 26 April 1917, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the
last Nizam promulgated a farman by which the new university was designed to
take full advantage of “all that is best in the ancient and modern systems
of physical, intellectual and spiritual culture” (Datla 2013: 50). The
Nizam stated,

In the Hyderabad Dominions a University should be established in which the
ancient and modern, oriental and occidental arts, sciences are synthesised
in such a manner that the defects of the present system of education are
rectified. (Datla 2013: 50)

The ideal of imparting higher education through the regional languages of
India was a revolt against the dominance of the English language in India
under British colonial rule.

The Nizam sought to correct “the defects of the present system” and protect
his subjects from Eurocentric intellectual thraldom. He also felt that the
founding of a new university was indispensable for imparting education and
furthering research through the medium of a vernacular language, that is,
Urdu. The justification given for the adoption of Urdu was that “it is the
official language of the State and understood by a vast majority of the
population of the State.” The farman stated,

The fundamental principal in the working of the university should be that
Urdu should form the medium of higher education, but that knowledge of
English as a language should at the same time be deemed compulsory for all
students. (Datla 2013: 50)

According to the farman*, *the primary objective of the university was to
promote the study of literature, arts, science, philosophy, history,
medicine, commerce, law, agriculture, and other branches of knowledge as
well as imparting physical, moral, technical and professional training.

To achieve the goals outlined in the farman, Mir Osman Ali Khan sanctioned
a scheme for the establishment of a university in Hyderabad whose roots
would be firmly based in oriental culture, though they would also derive
benefits from Western knowledge. Indeed, the establishment of Osmania
University was a continuation of the traditions of *Dar-ul-Ulm,* the first
oriental college established in the mid-19th century by Sir Salar Jung,
during the reign of sixth Nizam, Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, which combined the
best elements of Eastern and Western learning.

*Non-English Higher Education*

By founding an Urdu-medium university, the first of its kind in British
India, an attempt was made to democratise and liberate knowledge which was
imprisoned in the “treasure-houses” of foreign languages. To popularise the
regional language as a medium of higher education, a Bureau of Compilations
and Translations was established in August 1917 with Moulvi Abdul Haq as
its head. It was a unique institution which contributed to the intellectual
enrichment of the university. The bureau had undertaken translation of
scientific, technical and medical books in English, Persian, Arabic and
other European languages into Urdu. Hundreds of books relating to the
faculties of arts and social sciences, the sciences, law, engineering,
medicine, and education were translated and made available to students. The
commendable work done by the translation bureau of the university was
acknowledged by scholars.

Thus, the Osmania University was conceived by intellectuals as a
renaissance in the Indian educational system. During the pre-independence
period, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan, undertook the daring
experiment of using one of the regional languages as a medium of
instruction in higher education. Rabindranath Tagore observed,

I have long been waiting for the day when, freed from the shackles of a
foreign language, our education becomes naturally accessible to all our
people. It is a problem for the solution of which we look to our Native
States, and it gives me great joy to know that your State proposes to found
a university in which instructions are to be given through the medium of
Urdu. It is needless to say that your scheme has my fullest appreciation.
(Shahane et al nd: 4)

While C Rajagopalachari described that the Osmania University is a “true
Vidyapeeth, the Swadeshi University of India” (*Telangana Today* 2017). One
of the basic ideals of the university has been the achievement of an
intellectual synthesis of the best oriental and occidental knowledge. The
other ideal of the university has been a cultural synthesis—which is also
reflected in the architectural style of the university buildings.

Osmania University was the seventh oldest university in India and third
oldest in South India and it has significantly contributed to the academic
and intellectual development of not only the region but also of the
country. The founder of the university envisaged the development of
national ethos by the creation of an academic institution in which
“national integration” is a noble ideal and a tangible reality. Osman Ali
Khan remarked,

It is my earnest desire that the university should cooperate with other
Indian Universities in preparing the way for a scientific renaissance which
will contribute to the material progress and prosperity of India, and at
the same time secure for her an honoured place in the ranks of the nations
who lead in enlightenment and culture. (*Telangana Today* 2017)

*Academic and Social Profile *

During the reign of the last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan (1911–48), there was
noticeable growth in higher education. With the founding of Osmania
University in 1918, demand for higher education increased in the Telangana
region. The budget allocation for education and health in the Nizam’s
dominions increased from ₹21.75 lakh in 1911 to ₹428.41 lakh in 1948 (*Report
on the Administration of *H E m* the Nizam’s Dominions* for the respective
years). The Nizam’s government also established several intermediate,
degree, and professional colleges, including a separate college for [
*zanana*] women. The first quarter of the 20th century witnessed the
establishment of premier educational institutions like the City College,
the Medical College, the Engineering College, Teacher Training College,
etc. The university first conducted intermediate examinations in 1921,
while the first Bachelor of Arts (BA) examinations were held in 1923.
Subsequently a law course was launched to provide professional training to
graduates and undergraduates. In addition, courses in theology, arts and
sciences too were soon introduced. The university held its first Master of
Arts (MA) and Bachelor of Laws (LLB>) examinations in 1925 and opened the
University College of Medicine in 1927. The university also introduced the
departments of chemistry, physics, English, civil engineering, and
mathematics, as these courses were a major requirement at that time. Later,
the university introduced PhD programme in 1938. With a modest beginning in
the early years of its existence with student strength of 225, and 25 staff
members, the Osmania University expanded with rapid speed and it made great
strides. The University College of Arts began with a modest student
strength of 143 in 1919, which grew to 465 by 1922 (*Report on the
Administration of *H E m* the Nizam’s Dominions*).

The period between 1917 and 1948 witnessed a growth of secondary and higher
education in the Hyderabad state. Like all other institutions in the
Nizam’s dominion, the University College of Arts witnessed several changes
since its inception. Most important of all, it saw the gradual increase in
student enrolment and the addition of new departments, and courses of study
to those of traditional disciplines. Historical evidence indicates that the
faculty of arts in the University College of Arts was started with two
professors and comprised 12 departments. The total numbers of colleges
under the university’s jurisdiction was 40 and the student strength
increased to 17,354 by 1948. In order to maintain academic standards, the
Nizam’s government invited a number of scholars of eminence from different
parts of India, and also employed European scholars. Among the social
sciences, the history department was one of the earliest to be established
in the Osmania University and it was headed by eminent historians like
Haroon Khan Sherwani. Along with arts and social science disciplines,
medical, engineering, science, and law faculties also attracted eminent
scholars from all over India.

A unique contribution of Osmania University was towards the development of
scientific, vocational, and technical education. Osmania scholars occupied
prominent positions in the Nizam’s administration and contributed for the
development of the state. The outstanding contribution of Nawab Ali Nawaz
Jung through the development of irrigation projects is noteworthy.
Likewise, the establishment of scientific laboratories and research
institutes like the Nizamiah Observatory became the precursor to the Centre
for Advanced Study in Astronomy, and the Industrial Laboratory became the
Regional Research Laboratory. During the pre-independence period, eminent
educationists such as Nawab Mehdi Yar Jung, Nawab Sir Masood Jung, Nawab
Ali Yavar Jung shaped the secular fabric of the university and Urdu became
the “Worldly Vernacular” (Datla 2009) and “the Language of Secular Islam”
in the Hyderabad state.

Nevertheless, the peculiar socio-economic system prevailing under the Asaf
Jahi dynasty facilitated the growth of educated elite predominantly drawn
from the feudal/aristocratic families of upper caste Muslims and Hindus.
The language policy of the government was advantageous for the
Urdu-speaking urban elite from communities like Muslims, Parsis, Kayasthas,
and a small elite section of Hindus. Thus besides the urban Muslim elites,
rural dominant castes like Brahmins, Velamas and Reddies from the Telangana
region also enrolled in Osmania University in pursuit of higher education.
In the 1920s,> non-Brahmin castes like Velamas, Reddys, Kapus, Padmashalis
and others established hostels in the Hyderabad city and encouraged their
fellow caste-men to pursue modern education. For instance, the Reddy Hostel
facilitated the growth of education among their community. Some of the
occupation-based other backward communities like the Padmashalis (weavers),
Goudas (toddy tappers), etc, also formed caste associations and established
hostels to encourage education among them. As a result they could be seen
entering into services at the lower levels. However, Dalits were
conspicuously absent in the echelons of higher education, though Bhagya
Reddy Varma, the Adi-Hindu leader, promoted primary education in the Telugu
medium.

*Post-1956 Scenario *

In 1948, after “Police Action,” when the Nizam’s rule was abolished and
Hyderabad state was integrated into the Indian Union, Osmania University
entered a new phase (Shahane et al nd). In 1949, English replaced Urdu as
the medium of instruction. The formation of the Andhra Pradesh in 1956 had
a profound impact on the academic structure of Osmania University. In terms
of social background of the university teaching community and students, the
post-1950 period represented the overwhelming presence of caste Hindu
elites and a sharp decline of Urdu-speaking Muslim communities. The
university registered a steady growth in student enrolment and the period
1958–68 witnessed tremendous expansion. Under the able administration of
vice chancellors like D S Reddy and Suri Bhagavantam, the university
responded to the new imperatives of higher education by undertaking many
reforms. During the tenure of Reddy, the accelerated pace of academic
growth was largely due to his unique personality, which “embodied a sense
of the value of past tradition, coupled with an active understanding of the
need for innovation” (Shahane et al nd: 4). He invited distinguished
scholars from different parts of India as faculty members and thereby
enhanced the stature of the university.1 Under the leadership of eminent
scholars, several new courses were introduced in the faculty of science
such as astronomy, biochemistry, and geophysics; journalism, psychology,
and linguistics in the arts, and public administration in the social
sciences. There was rapid expansion of postgraduate and doctoral courses,
establishment of new chairs, and encouragement given to research
institutions.

In the history of Osmania University, the period between the golden jubilee
(in 1968) and platinum jubilee (in 1993) witnessed unprecedented
transformation in the higher education system in the Telangana region. With
the introduction of academic reforms and changes in education policies of
the government the number of intermediate and degree colleges registered a
sharp increase. In order to improve the academic standards, the university
introduced several reforms. In particular, the introduction of an entrance
test for admission into postgraduate courses resulted in the growth of
quality education. Prior to 1974, admissions into postgraduate courses were
given on the basis of marks secured in the graduation courses. Because of
mass copying and other malpractices, the marks and the ranks secured in the
final examinations did not reflect the merit of a student. Hence, to
overcome this anomaly, the entrance examination system was introduced in
the Osmania University. Consequently, a large number of students from rural
and semi-urban areas of Telangana secured admissions into various
postgraduate courses. The entry of first-generation students belonging to
the underprivileged groups into the higher education system facilitated
some sort of social transformation. With the entry of diverse social,
gender, regional, ethnic, and linguistic groups the Osmania University
campus became truly cosmopolitan and relatively more inclusive.

The establishment of a number of postgraduate centres in the districts led
to the expansion of academic programmes of the university. In order to make
university education accessible to large sections of people in the
Telangana region, the Distance Education Centre was established. The last
two decades of the 20th century witnessed the formation of new centres of
academic excellence on the campus. Teaching and research activities in the
university also reached new heights since many departments received
research funding from national and international agencies. Consequently,
the Osmania University emerged as a premier educational institution in the
country and in the era of globalisation its alumni spread across the world.
Presently, the Osmania University is a preferred destination for higher
studies for foreign students, especially from Africa, West Asia and South
East Asian countries.

For the last hundred years, Osmania University has remained as a premier
educational institution in the Telangana region and a symbol of liberal and
secular centre of higher learning. Its alumni included eminent
personalities in diverse fields.2 In the beginning, the social composition
of the university academic community consisted of urban elite groups. But
by the end of 1970, the dominant non-Brahmin Hindu local/*mulki* groups
gained considerable presence in the faculty recruitment and admissions.
Although, constitutional safeguards and provision for reservations in
university admissions and employment were provided, they were not
effectively implemented till about late 1970s. It was the main reason why
many of the Dalit Bahujan communities did not gain access to university
education and employment. However, compared to the earlier period, in the
1970–80 decade, the social welfare policies of the government and
constitutional provisions were of immense help to the students from weaker
sections.

The democratic student movements in the university campus, positive and
liberal teaching faculty, and a favourable academic ambience also
contributed to the educational empowerment of students of my generation,
who hailed from rural areas. The introduction of entrance examinations,
award of social welfare scholarships and implementation of reservation
policy in the university admissions facilitated the entry of quite a good
number of lower caste students into the university system, thereby paved
the way for some sort of social transformation. The 1980s was a significant
period in the history of Osmania University, as it witnessed expansion and
diversity in admissions and appointments. The social composition of faculty
and student community had undergone a significant change. It was mainly due
to the implementation of reservation policy and constitutional safeguards
in favour of Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribe (STs), and Other
Backward Classes (OBC) categories. In addition, the social welfare hostels
and residential schools produced the best and meritorious students from
these backgrounds.

*Hotbed of Telangana Movement*

The entry of students with diverse backgrounds into the university system
had an important bearing on the politicisation of campus (Satyanarayana and
Satyanarayana 2016; Prakash 2016; Reddy et al 2016). Historically, as a
leading educational institution in the Telangana region, Osmania University
also became a centre of student politics and its campus represented
divergent ideologies and viewpoints. During the Nizam’s rule, university
students participated in the Nizam’s Subjects League which championed the
cause of mulkis and also spearheaded the *Vandemataram *movement in 1938.
Later, the university also produced leaders who participated in the
communist movement and the Telangana peasant armed struggle. They have
played an active role in the formation of Hyderabad Comrades Association
and the All Hyderabad Students Association. In 1953, City College students
were in the forefront of the mulki movement, which was the forerunner to
the Telangana movement in 1969. The Telangana movement of the 1950s>
reflected the insider–outsider conflict and articulated the distinct
identity of the region and its people: its slogans “Non-Mulkis Go Back,”
and “*Idli-Sambar *Go Back,” also reflected the assertion of the self and
the other. Central to the mulki movement was the reiteration of subregional
distinctiveness of Telangana, which can be attributed to caste/community,
cultural, linguistic, and politico-historical factors. The subregional
feelings are historically rooted in the popular imagination, as the Telugus
were separated into two distinct political units under the Nizam and
British rule.

However, the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956, disregarding
the subregional distinctiveness and patterns of socio-economic
transformation caused several problems. The merging of two unequal regions
and the subsequent growth of interregional disparities paved the way for
the separate Telangana movement. The first two decades of democratic
political practice in Andhra Pradesh witnessed the systematic negation of
the guarantees and safeguards, as well as the violation of the gentlemen
agreement. The blatant display of political dominance by the non-local
political leadership and continuous discrimination of the Telangana region
led to the growing discontentment among its people. With the spread of
higher education, the aspirations of Telangana youth for employment have
grown. But first-generation university graduates in Telangana were
discriminated and their chances of employment were curtailed due to the
domination of people from coastal Andhra. In Osmania University itself, the
overwhelming presence of non-local staff members was resented by the
locals. The demand for a separate state spread to the university campus
after protests in the context of violation of employment rules.

Subsequently, widespread protests took place in Osmania University campus
against the employment of Andhra people in Telangana jobs. By 1969, the
demand for separate Telangana crystallised among the student community of
Osmania University. Student leaders from the university like Pulla Reddy, P
Sridhar, M Mallikarjun, etc, played a catalytic role in the mobilisation of
students from all over Telangana. Educational institutions became centres
of protest, and students led mass demonstrations, hartals, boycotts and the
students Joint Action Committee led the movement. The other notable feature
of campus politics was the support of university and college teachers to
the movement. Prominent teachers who took part in the movement included K
Jayashankar, Keshavarav Jhadav, Thota Ananda Rao, Sridhara Swamy, and they
organised conferences, meetings and published literature in support of
Telangana. The university vice chancellor, R Satyanarayana addressed public
meetings, conferences and extended his support to the cause of Telangana.
The movement became widespread and the government ruthlessly suppressed it,
which led to the death of hundreds of students. Although the sacrifices of
the students did not achieve a separate state, yet the idea of Telangana
was kept alive in the popular imagination. Indeed, Osmania University
became an important place of activity where the idea of a separate state
kept simmering in the four decades between 1969 and 2009 through meetings,
seminars, and representations.

After the suppression of the Telangana movement in 1970, the university
campus became a centre for radical student political movements. The onset
of Naxalbari movement attracted the attention of university students and
the campus witnessed the formation of socialist-oriented organisations.
Progressive organisations were led by prominent student leaders like George
Reddy, Jampala Prasad, G Ramani, Madhusudhan Raj, Gaddar (Gummadi Vithal
Rao), Kura Rajanna, etc, who fought against the communal forces and feudal
elements in the campus and outside. The post-Emergency decade witnessed
proliferation of militant student organisations and many students from the
campus joined Naxalite parties. Given the social polarisation on the
campus, students from Dalit Bahujan communities have played an important
role in the radical left movements, while the students with dominant caste
background were active in the pro-ruling party organisations and movements.
The impact of militant student movement was significant in the growth of
democratic, secular, and identity movements in the 1980s> and 1990s>. The
first phase of the most recent Telangana movement, which began in the
mid-1990s>, was dominated by the militant student organisations and parties.

The growth of second phase of Telangana movement, since the turn of the
millennium, was mainly due to the discriminatory policies pursued by the
ruling parties (Pingle 2014; Thirumali 2013). In particular, the rise of
the Telugu Desam Party to power in 1983 led to a peculiar nexus between
caste, region, capital formation, and economic development. As the
political leadership under the Congress regimes was dominated by the
Reddys, the entrepreneurial Kamma-caste capitalists acquired political
power and resorted to accumulation by monopolising the economic resources
of Telangana. Under the leadership of Telugu Desam Party the regional
capitalist class predominantly consisting of the Kammas had taken advantage
of the globalisation policies and resorted to economic aggrandisement; real
estate, cinema, hospitals, corporate education, chit funds, information
technology, and print and electronic media became the preserve of the
Seemandhra (coastal Andhra) capitalists. Economic development under
globalisation led to the destruction of the artisanal, service and
occupational communities in Telangana and caused resentments among them.
The growth of the Telangana movement since the 1990s was a clear
manifestation of the destitution of the productive communities in the
Telangana region. Long before the establishment of Telangana Rashtra
Samithi party in 2001, the growth of autonomous student movement at Osmania
University and its role in keeping up the momentum is quite significant.
Its importance lies in the fact that it exposed the manipulations of the
politicians and consolidated the growing will of the masses.

The university students from the two leading universities in the Telangana
region, namely Osmania and Kakatiya, overwhelmingly belonged to the
first-generation OBC, SC>, ST, minority and women students. They truly
represented the organic linkages with the grass-roots aspirations of the
lower castes who were the victims of the globalisation agenda pursued by
the dominant-caste leadership. Hence, the slogans of Telangana movement,
self-respect and identity, self-rule, regional autonomy, etc, have gained
acceptance among the Dalit Bahujans in the rural areas through the
mediation of organic leaders belonging to the student community.
University-educated lower-caste artists, singers, writers, poets, and
scholars have also played a significant role in the mobilisation of masses
during the second phase of the Telangana movement since 2001. Though the
issue remained alive in the intervening years after 1969, large-scale
student protests broke out in 2009. Since 2009, the Osmania University
campus witnessed sporadic incidents of violent protests until Telangana
finally became a reality in June 2014. The historic Arts College building
is the face of the university mobilisation and the room number 57 inside
the building will go down in history as the venue for political discussions
and meetings. The final phase of the movement was intensified by the
activities of student joint action committees founded in all the
universities in the Telangana region, but the leading role was played by
the Osmania University campus. M Kodandaram, Chairman, Telangana Joint
Action Committee, and K Laxman have played a major role in building a
united movement consisting of students, and teaching and non-teaching staff
in all the universities.

*Retrospect and Prospect*

The role of Osmania University in the growth of the academic and
intellectual community in the Telangana region is quite significant. As a
leading educational institution, it attracted talent from different regions
of India and contributed to academic enrichment. However, the impact of
liberalisation policies led to the weakening of the university’s
institutional structure and academic ambience. In particular, large-scale
privatisation of higher education, non-recruitment of qualified faculty,
employment of irregular and contract faculty, and budget cuts led to the
decline of academic standards and research output. Presently, more than
half of the budgeted posts are vacant and in some departments there are no
regular faculty members. The university is facing several problems
pertaining to the infrastructure, logistics, and facilities. The
introduction of self-finance courses led to a casual employment system, and
it eroded academic and teaching standards. The examination and evaluation
methods have also declined. Lack of adequate financial resources led to
deterioration of teaching and research activities, and in recent years
funding from national bodies also declined. The neglect of recruitment of
regular teachers drastically impacted the quality of classroom teaching in
all the disciplines. Growing indiscipline and lack of accountability on the
part of the stakeholders of the university system is causing decline of
academic standards. Frequent interference by politicians and non-academic
considerations in the appointments to key positions, is also an important
reason for deterioration of academic autonomy.

In order to revive the past glory and to celebrate the centenary year of
the university (in 2017–18) in a befitting manner, it is essential to
achieve academic excellence by setting a new agenda. To improve classroom
teaching, the appointment of regular teachers must be undertaken once
again. Available talent and academic resources need to be utilised to the
fullest possible extent. Presently, Osmania University is attracting
students from several foreign countries and there is every possibility to
augment its resources and face the challenges of globalisation. The
intellectual and scholarly inputs of the university alumni can be utilised
for undertaking innovative research programmes. The introduction of
innovative courses and formulation of cutting-edge research programmes will
help achieve academic excellence.

The formation of the new Telangana state has brought forward many issues
and challenges before the university. Osmania University has never been
isolated from mainstream society and it has been responsive to societal
needs. The major challenge before the leading institution in Telangana is
to fulfil the aspirations of the student community, which is drawn
overwhelmingly from downtrodden communities. In the context of growing
privatisation of education, the university must fulfil their aspiration for
access to quality higher education, and employment.

*Notes*

1 Some of the reputed professors of the Osmania University during 1960–70
included the following: Suri Bhagavantam and P S Puranic (Physics), K D
Abhayankar (Astronomy), Bhima Shankaram (Geophysics), C Leelanandam
(Geology), Madhava Reddy (Genetics), N V Subba Rao (Chemistry), B H
Krishnamurthy (Linguistics), E G Parameswaran (Psychology), Raja Chellaiah
and Gautham Mathur (Economics), Ram Reddy, M Muttalib and Rasheeduddin Khan
(Political Science and Public Administration), Shiv K Kumar (English), V V
Ramanandham (Commerce), Ramayanam Narsimha Rao and Saroini Regani
(History), Syed Basheeruddin (Journalism), Aryendra Sharma and P
Ramachandrudu (Sanskrit), Namvar Singh (Hindi), Manzur Alam (Geography), C
Laxmanna (Sociology), Madhusudhan Reddy and Alam Kundumiri (Philosophy).

2 The former Prime Minister of India, P V Narasimha Rao; former Deputy
Prime Minister, Y B Chavan; former Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shivraj Patil;
former Union Minister, S Jaipal Reddy; former Chief Election Commissioner
of India, V S Ramadevi; former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Y
Venugopal Reddy; former Chairman, University Grants Commission, and Founder
Vice-Chancellor of Indira Gandhi National Open University G Ram Reddy;
eminent economist C H Hanumantha Rao; Jnanapeeth Awardee C Narayana Reddy;
political scientist Kancha Ilaiah; cosmonaut and first Indian to travel to
space Rakesh Sharma; Present chief executive officer of Adobe Systems,
Shantanu Narayen; eminent film director and screen writer, Shyam Benegal;
former captain Indian cricket team, Mohammed Azharuddin; and cricket
commentator, Harsha Bhogle.

*References*

Datla, Kavita (2009): “A Worldly Vernacular: Urdu at Osmania
University,”*Modern
Asian Studies,* Vol 43, No 5,pp 1117–48, viewed on 2 January 2018,
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/modern-asian-studies/article
/a-worldly-vernacular-urdu-at-osmania-university/40D146455749C3DBA9F543E2830536F4
<https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/modern-asian-studies/article/a-worldly-vernacular-urdu-at-osmania-university/40D146455749C3DBA9F543E2830536F4>
.

— (2013): *The Language of Secular Islam: Urdu Nationalism and Colonial
India*, New Delhi: Orient Black Swan.

Pingle, G (2014): *The Fall and Rise of Telangana*, New Delhi: Orient
Blackswan.

Prakash, V (2016): *History of the Telangana Movement,* Hyderabad:
Jayashankar Telangana Research and Development and GBK Publications.

Reddy, G B and Sumita Roy (2017): *Reflections: Osmania University
Centenary Commemorative Volume,* Hyderabad: Osmania University.

Reddy, Ramakrishna, V E Sudha Rani and G Sudarshan Reddy (2016): *Telangana
History and Culture*, Hyderabad: Telugu Akademi.

*Report on the Administration of H E H the Nizam’s Dominions *(various
years)*:* Hyderabad–Deccan: Government Central Press.

Satyanarayana, A and D Satyanarayana (2016): *Telangana Charitra-Samscruti
Rashtraavatarana Udyamalu* (Telugu), Hyderabad: Sangam Books.

Shahane, V A, M N Siddiqui and B N Joshi (nd): *The Osmania University:
Golden Jubilee Souvenir, 1918–68*, Hyderabad: The English Souvenir
Committee.

*Telangana Today* (2017): “Osmania University: In Retrospect,” 25 April.

Thirumali, I (2013): *Telangana–Andhra: Castes, Regions and Politics in
Andhra Pradesh*, New Delhi: Akar Books.

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 Harold F. Schiffman

Professor Emeritus of
 Dravidian Linguistics and Culture
Dept. of South Asia Studies
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6305

Phone:  (215) 898-7475
Fax:  (215) 573-2138

Email:  haroldfs at gmail.com
http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/

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