Summary: inclusory constructions
croft at CASBS.STANFORD.EDU
Wed Mar 24 21:34:50 UTC 2004
Dear list members,
Thanks very much for the overwhelming and immediate response.
The construction I was interested in, "Mary
leave-1PL" ('Mary and I left'), is an instance of
what Lichtenberk 2000 calls an implicit split
inclusory construction. An inclusory construction
is one in which the reference of one syntactic
element is properly included in the reference of
another syntactic element, the inclusory
pronominal (in my example, the referent of "Mary"
is included in the 1st plural referent set). If
the two elements do not form a unit, Lichtenberk
calls it split; if there is no overt linking
morpheme, Lichtenberk calls it implicit. Some
correspondents offered examples of other types of
inclusory constructions, such as what Lichtenberk
calls a (implicit) phrasal inclusory construction
(the pronominal and included element form a
phrase), as in Bislama (Crowely 2004:71):
Mitufala gel ia i stap wokbaot long sanbij.
'That girl and I were walking along the beach.'
[Mitufala = first person dual exclusive]
Singer (2001) argues that in some Australian
languages, nonaffixal inclusory pronominals do
not form a phrase with the included nominal.
Another type is what Lichtenberk calls an
explicit (phrasal) inclusory construction, as in
Hungarian (example from Richard Madsen, COM =
The usual etymological source of the explicit
morpheme is a comitative or an NP coordinating
This just gives an outline of the phenomenon; for
details, here are the references offered me, not
all of which have I been able to check at this
--Earlier papers discussing inclusory constructions:
Mithun, Marianne. 1986. Disagreement: the case of
pronominal affixes and nouns. Proceedings of the
Georgetown University Round Table Conference on
Languages and Linguistics 1985, ed. Deborah
Tannen & James E. Alatis, 50-66. Washington, DC:
Georgetown University Press.
Schwartz, Linda. 1988a. Conditions on verb-coded
coordinations. Studies in syntactic typology, ed.
Michael Hammond, Edith Moravcsik & Jessica Wirth,
53-73. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schwartz, Linda. 1988b. Asymmetric feature
distributions in pronominal 'coordinations'.
Agreement in Natural Language, ed. Michael Barlow
& Charles A. Ferguson, 237-49. Stanford: Center
for the Study of Language and Information.
Aissen, Judith. 1989. Agreement controllers and
Tzotzil comitatives. Language 65:518-36.
--Recent literature specifically on inclusory constructions:
Lichtenberk, Frantisek. 2000. Inclusory
pronominals. Oceanic Linguistics 39:1-32.
Singer, Ruth. 2001. Inclusory constructions in
Australian Languages. Honours thesis, Department
of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics,
University of Melbourne. Available at
Bril, Isabelle. 2004. Coordination strategies and
inclusory constructions in New Caledonian and
other Oceanic languages. To appear in
Coordinating constructions, ed. Martin
Haspelmath. (Typological studies in Language.)
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
--Other related references:
Barlow, Michael. 1999. Agreement as a discourse
phenomenon. Folia Linguistica 33: 187-210.
Bickel, Balthasar. 2000. On the syntax of
agreement in Tibeto-Burman. Studies in Language
Corbett, Greville G. 2000. Number. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. [pp 191-92, 232-33]
Haspelmath, Martin. To appear. Coordination.
Language typology and linguistic description (2nd
ed.), ed. Timothy Shopen. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. Available at
Moravcsik, Edith. 2003. A semantic analysis of
associative plurals. Studies in Language
--Some grammars with examples mentioned by correspondents:
Crowley, Terry. 2004. Bislama Reference Grammar. Honolulu: University of
Hawai'i Press. [p. 71]
Evans, Nicholas. 2003. Bininj Gun-Wok: a
pan-dialectal grammar of Mayali, Kunwinjku and
Kune (2 vol.). (Pacific Lingusitics, 541.)
Canberra: Australian National University. [pp
Faarlund, Jan Terje. 2004. The Syntax of Old
Norse. Oxford UP. (Due to appear in June) [pp.
François, Alexandre. 2001. Contraintes de
structures et liberté dans l'organisation du
discours: Une description du mwotlap, langue
océanienne du Vanuatu. Doctoral dissertation,
Université Paris-IV Sorbonne. 3 volumes.
Zuniga, Fernando. 2000. Mapudungun. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
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