[Lingtyp] Co-expression of future and past

Michael Daniel misha.daniel at gmail.com
Wed Dec 12 07:21:25 UTC 2018


I think that the example from Iraya, if counted, potentially extends the
applicability of the original query - depending on details. From Yuki's
description, batay may not to be a fully lexical item but a future word,
similar to plural words, in that it expresses the meaning of pure future
rather than 'tomorrow', 'soon' etc. If this is so, it would be important to
know whether batay is obligatorily used when the form has future time
reference, or it is optional in all contexts.

If it is obligatory, I do not see much difference from e.g. case of Archi,
East Caucasian, where the basic form with future reference (suffix -qi,
called potential in Kibrik et al 1977) is derived from the basic form with
perfective reference (various morphological processes), as Lo give.PFV ->
Lo-qi give.PFV-FUT.

And even if bataya is optional with future reference but is a function word
rather than a temporal adverb, I would see the case of Iraya as
intermediate between the anonymous language of Western Highlands and Archi
- simply by the assumedly grammatical (function word) nature of bataya. The
distribution of bataya may also be important in this respect (combines with
non-finite forms or not, etc.)

Of course, I may be wrong in assuming bataya being a function word - then
more details are needed.

Michael Daniel

ср, 12 дек. 2018 г. в 08:02, Yukinori Kimoto <yk.kimoto at gmail.com>:

> Hi Lauren,
> In Iraya, a Philippine language spoken in Mindoro has developed "present
> vs. non-present" tense system, in which the infix <in> marks both past and
> future, and the basic forms signal present.
> The infix originally marked past ~ anterior, not future, and in fact most
> languages spoken in northern part of the Philippines seem to follow that
> system, but Iraya extended the meaning to cover the future sense. The
> ambiguity between the past and future readings is resolved by the use of
> preverbal element "batay" (future).
> Nay ʔ<in>inəm ʔag sapaʔ ʔaray ʔumaga.
> 1SG <TR.non-pesent>drink DET water today morning.
> 'I drank the water this morning.'
> Nay batay ʔ<in>inəm ʔag sapaʔ girabas.
> 1SG FUT <TR.non-pesent>drink DET water tomorrow.
> 'I'll drink the water tomorrow.'
> Nay ʔinəm-ən ʔag sapaʔ ŋuna.
> 1SG drink-TR.present DET water now
> 'I am drinking the water now.'
> You can refer to the following article.
> Reid, Lawrence A. 2017. Re-evaluating the Position of Iraya Among
> Philippine Languages. Liao, Hsiu-chuan (ed.) Issues in Austronesian
> historical linguistics. JSEALS special publication no.1. pp.23-47
> (Available online)
> All the best,
> Yuki
> > 2018/12/11 10:37、Lauren Reed <lauren.reed at anu.edu.au>のメール:
> >
> > Dear colleagues,
> >
> > My colleague Alan Rumsey and I are working on a small sign language in
> Western Highlands, Papua New Guinea. The language has a marker which
> appears to express either remote future or remote past. This co-expression
> is attributed by users to the fact that both far future and far past events
> occur many sleep-wake cycles from now.
> >
> > I am interested in hearing of any other examples you may be aware of
> where languages overtly mark both future and past with the same marker
> (whether this be remote or not).
> >
> > Best regards
> > Lauren
> >
> > ---
> > Lauren Reed
> > Australian National University
> > laurenwreed.com
> > +61 438 583 808
> >
> > _______________________________________________
> > Lingtyp mailing list
> > Lingtyp at listserv.linguistlist.org
> > http://listserv.linguistlist.org/mailman/listinfo/lingtyp
> ***************************************
> 木本幸憲
> 名古屋大学大学院 人文学研究科
> 日本学術振興会特別研究員(PD)
> Yukinori Kimoto, Ph.D
> Graduate School of Humanities, Nagoya University
> JSPS Postdoctoral Research Fellow
> Visiting scholar, University of Melbourne
> e-mail: yk.kimoto at gmail.com
> phone: +81-90-6370-2777
> ***************************************
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