[Lingtyp] Query: extended direct speech

Hedvig Skirgård hedvig.skirgard at gmail.com
Wed Apr 24 23:44:58 UTC 2019

Thank you Denis for your question, this is intriguing indeed. These kinds
of queries that stretch into pragmatics and methodology of comparing
natural speech patterns interest me a great deal.

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Meilleurs sentiments,

*Hedvig Skirgård*

PhD Candidate

The Wellsprings of Linguistic Diversity

ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language

School of Culture, History, and Language
College of Asia and the Pacific

The Australian National University

Website <https://sites.google.com/site/hedvigskirgard/>

P.S. If you have multiple email addresses, I kindly ask you to just use one
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Den tors 25 apr. 2019 kl 01:24 skrev Denis CREISSELS <
denis.creissels at univ-lyon2.fr>:

> Dear all,
> By ‘extended direct speech’, I mean constructions involving a main verb
> which is not a verb of saying and a subordinate clause which does not refer
> to a speech act, but in which first person pronouns or indexes in the
> subordinate clause behave exactly in the same way as in direct speech, in
> the sense that they do not refer to the speaker, but to the subject of the
> matrix clause. This pattern is regularly (although optionally) found in
> Jóola Fóoñi (aka Diola-Fogny, an Atlantic language of Senegal), in the
> complementation of ‘know’ and other cognitive verbs.
> For example, in Jóola Fooñi, ‘The childi knows that hisi mother worked
> hard for himi’ is commonly expressed as literally ‘The child knows that
> my mother worked hard for me’. The obvious explanation is that such a
> sentence can be paraphrased as ‘The child knows (something he could express
> by saying:) my mother worked hard for me’. One must therefore consider the
> possibility that, cross-linguistically, similar sentences occur more or
> less sporadically in spontaneous speech with a special intonation, as a
> ‘figure of speech’ of the type termed ‘anacoluthon’ in classical rhetoric.
> What is special in the case of Jóola Fóoñi is that such a formulation is
> stylistically neutral, does not necessitate a special intonation, and is
> not deemed deviant by speakers.
> I would be interested to know whether a similar routinization of ‘extended
> direct speech’ has been observed in other languages.
> Best,
> Denis
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