[Lingtyp] 'Take' as diachronic source for causative? 'Stand' for ingressive?

Epps, Patience L pattieepps at austin.utexas.edu
Thu Aug 20 16:15:51 UTC 2020

Dear Claudia,

In Hup, a Naduhup language of NW Amazonia, ‘take’ is the source of the primary/default causativizer in SVCs (among a few other causativizing strategies, also from verbs). For example:

denícon  tɨh-an  d’oʔ-ʔɔt-ɔh
Denilson  3sg-OBJ  take-cry-DECL
‘Denilson made him cry!’

This is discussed in Ch. 9 of my Hup grammar (Epps 2008, A Grammar of Hup, de Gruyter Mouton), mostly from p.399 and forward (though there I noted the impression that this was not so unusual typologically - maybe this was incorrect!).

Please let me know if you’d like more info and I’ll be glad to send it, and thanks for raising this interesting topic.

All best,

On Aug 20, 2020, at 5:53 AM, David Gil <gil at shh.mpg.de<mailto:gil at shh.mpg.de>> wrote:

Dear Claudia,

A complex pattern of polysemy involving, among many other items, 'take' and causative, is described in Gil (2017) for several languages of Northwest New Guinea, Austronesian and Non-Austronesian.  A possible example of partial 'take'/causative coexpression is provided by the isolate language Yawa.  More commonly, though, the 'take'/causative connection is mediated by 'give', with lots of languages exhibiting 'take'/'give' coexpression (e.g. Hatam, Meyah, Irarutu), and many other languages in the same region (e.g. Abun, Waropen, Roon) displaying 'give'/causative coexpression.

Gil, David (2017) "Roon ve, DO/GIVE Coexpression, and Language Contact in Northwest New Guinea", in A. Schapper ed., Contact and Substrate in the Languages of Wallacea Part 1, NUSA 62:41-100. (http://hdl.handle.net/10108/89844)



On 18/08/2020 15:06, Claudia Wegener wrote:

Dear all,

It was suggested to me that grammaticalization of the verb 'take' to a causative marker is typologically unusual, and indeed, apart from the mention of Twi and Nupe (in Kuteva et al. 2019 and sources cited therein) and Fon (Lefebvre 1991) I have found little to no information on languages where this has happened... Would any of you know any other languages and could point me towards publications I could cite?

And related to this, I have been even less successful at finding languages where the verb for 'to stand' (as posture verb) has been grammaticalized to function as a marker for ingressive - if you know of any, would you be so kind to point me to any publications?

Many thanks in advance,



Lefebvre, Claire. 1991. Take serial verb constructions in Fon. In Claire Lefebvre (ed.), Serial Verbs: Grammatical, Comparative and Cognitive Approaches, 37-78. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Bo Hong, Haiping Long, Heiko Narrog & Seongha Rhee (eds.). 2019. World Lexicon of Grammaticalization, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Claudia Wegener
Abteilung Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft
Institut für Linguistik
Universität zu Köln
50923 Köln

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David Gil

Senior Scientist (Associate)
Department of Linguistic and Cultural Evolution
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany

Email: gil at shh.mpg.de<mailto:gil at shh.mpg.de>
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