[Lingtyp] Uncertainty over the use of the term "vocative" in this instance

Vladimir Panov panovmeister at gmail.com
Tue May 11 07:17:09 UTC 2021

Dear Ian,

There is the term "allocutive". The allocutive is not unlike the vocative,
but it functions on the sentence level rather than the NP level.
The example quoted by you seems to be an example of allocutive, although, a
non-canonical one, because it does not agree with the addressee in gender
as in Basque, for which this label was originally coined.
The term "sentence-final particle" refers to morphosyntactic rather than
semantic/functional properties, although it is used in very different
senses in the literature. So, your example may be viewed as an example of
allocutive sentence-final particle.
Here is a very nice paper on the allocutive: Antonov, Anton. 2015. Verbal
allocutivity in a crosslinguistic perspective. *Linguistic Typology* 19(1).


вт, 11 мая 2021 г. в 03:25, JOO, Ian [Student] <ian.joo at connect.polyu.hk>:

> Perhaps "sentence-final particle":
> https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sentence-final_particle
> From Hong Kong,
> Ian
> On 11 May 2021, 2:11 AM +0800, Thomas Diaz <tsdiaz at buffalo.edu>, wrote:
> Hello all,
> I am writing a grammatical description of a language called Heyo, a
> Torricelli language spoken in northwestern Papua New Guinea, for my
> dissertation. I have come across a clitic =o that I am not sure what to
> call. I am currently calling/glossing it as a vocative, as it can serve a
> vocative function as in the two following examples.
> boi=o!
> boy=VOC
> 'hey, boy!'
> Tawaks=o!
> tawaks=VOC
> 'hey, Tawaks!'
> However, its distribution is wider than a true vocative insofar as it can
> occur at the end of an indicative clause, like the following example (I am
> simplifying the glosses for the sake of clarity).
> naraha'aiun wat=o! habu darai=o!
> it.strike.me COMPL=VOC FUT run=VOC
> 'It has struck me! I will run away!'
> The example is made up of two clauses that, if one simply deleted the
> "vocative" clitic =o, would be standard indicative clauses. It is clear
> that the clitic serves to make the utterance more sonorous, analogous to
> the lengthening of stressed syllables when calling out in English. But I am
> not certain what would be a term for this form that would not be confusing
> to a reader.
> Thank you ahead of time for any input. I can try to provide more
> information if something needs clarification.
> Respectfully,
> Thomas S. Diaz (He/Him)
> PhD Candidate
> Department of Linguistics
> University at Buffalo (SUNY)
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