[Lingtyp] Affectionate or sympathy marking
christian.doehler at posteo.de
Thu Jan 12 10:10:22 UTC 2023
I am looking for publications that address the difference between (1)
and (2). In (2), the English adjective /poor/ is used to signal the
speaker's sympathy or affection towards the dog.
1. /The dog is waiting for its owner./
2. /The poor dog is waiting for its owner./
While English (and my native German) does this by extending the meaning
of the adjective /poor /(and /arm/ in German), other languages have
special words with only that meaning. For example, Komnzo /bana /is a
postposed adjective that only conveys sympathy.
/ ni bananzo namnzr karen./
//ni bana=nzo na\m/nzr kar=en
1NSG SYMP=only 1PL:NPST:IPFV/stay village=LOC
'Only we poor guys stay behind in the village' (subtext: 'while the
others are going to the celebration in the neighbouring village')
(NSG = non-singular, SYMP = sympathy marker, NPST = nonpast)
Yet other languages seem to have special verb morphology for this. Van
Tongeren describes this for Suki (her PhD grammar will probably be
available later this year).
Pointers to more examples and publications of this are most welcome. I
was googling this with keywords like "sympathy", "empathy", "affection",
but with not much luck. So there might be a whole literature on this
phenomenon under different terminology. If that's the case, then please
excuse my ignorance./
Dr. Christian Döhler
Leibniz-Zentrum Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft (ZAS)
Tel.: +49 30 20192 412
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