[Lingtyp] Grammaticalised emotional states

Riccardo Giomi rgiomi at campus.ul.pt
Mon Mar 6 16:36:45 UTC 2023

 Dear Ponrawee,

Several languages have a category labelled *frustrative*: for some, this
term is a (near-)synonymous of *avertive*, i.e. it indicates that an
envisaged situation failed to take place; for others it means that a
situation did take place, but its result or consequences were not the
expected ones (this notion is usually rendered in English as "in vain"); on
yet another definition, the term is reserved for markers expressing
speaker's frustration/disappointment -- and in this sense, it seems to
match what you are looking for. For an overview, I refer you to

Overall, Simon E. 2017. A typology of frustrative marking in Amazonian
languages. In Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), *The
Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology**, *477–512. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

As for markers of the type of Japanese *-yagaru*, I recently found out
about two bound morphemes with apparently very similar meanings in
Korean (*che-
*and -*essa*). I cannot cite any published literature, but I can put you in
contact with colleagues who are working on these morphemes, if you so wish.

Best wishes,

Ponrawee Prasertsom <ponrawee.pra at gmail.com> escreveu no dia segunda,
6/03/2023 à(s) 09:29:

> Dear typologists,
> There has been claims in the literature (Cinque, 2013) that (at least
> some) speakers' emotional states toward a situation such as "fear" and
> "worry" are not grammatically encoded in any language, where "grammatically
> encoded" means not encoded by closed-class items ("closed-class" in a
> morphosyntactic sense: a group of morphemes that occur in the same slot
> that do not easily admit new items and/or have few members).
> I am interested in examples of any grammaticalized marker for any
> emotional states (not necessarily "fear" and "worry"). I am interested in
> both markers of 1) the *speaker*'s emotional states toward the situation
> being expressed as well as 2) of the *subject*'s emotional states toward
> the situation. The class of the item could be bound (clitics, affixes) or
> free (particles, auxiliary verbs) as long as it could be shown to be
> (somewhat) closed. I am only interested in markers specialised for specific
> emotions, and not, e.g., impoliteness markers that could be used when the
> speaker is angry.
> The "(un)happy about the verb" infixes *-ei*- and -*äng-* from the
> constructed language Na'vi would be the paradigm example of what I am
> looking for if they actually existed in a natural language.
> A potential example is Japanese *-yagatte, *which some have told me have
> grammaticalised into an affix encoding anger about the action. I'm also
> looking into whether there is evidence that this is actually part of a
> closed-class and would appreciate any pointers/more information.
> Thank you very much in advance.
> Best regards,
> Ponrawee Prasertsom
> PhD student
> Centre for Language Evolution
> University of Edinburgh
> *References:*
> Cinque, G. (2013). Cognition, universal grammar, and typological
> generalizations. Lingua, 130, 50–65.
> https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.10.007
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Riccardo Giomi, Ph.D.
University of Liège
Département de langues modernes : linguistique, littérature et traduction
Research group *Linguistique contrastive et typologie des langues*
F.R.S.-FNRS Postdoctoral fellow (CR - FC 43095)
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