[Aztlan] mihtotia, ihtotia, mecehua...to dance?

Campbell, R Joe campbel at indiana.edu
Thu Aug 2 18:24:40 UTC 2007

Quiubole Mario,

   Fran has "mahce:hua" (p. 130): to obtain or to deserve what one 
desires; to do penance / conseguir o merecer lo deseado (M), hacer 
penitencia (M)...
And, of course, you have already found "ma:ce:hualli" on her p. 127.  
Once you are armed with the formal contrast, the data from Molina fall 
into two clear groups:  one connected with penance and dancing (they 
have glottal stops), and the other connected with commoners (no glottal 
   Since determining morphological relationship (i.e., identity) 
depends on two main criteria (form and function, or to put it another 
way, sound and meaning), if we have an inexact representation for the 
*sound*, we are at the mercy of our sense of meaning relationships.  
That's a shaky rail to walk on because sounds (really, phonemes) are 
really either/or; semantics is fuzzy and the relationships can be 
invented, no matter how careful we think we are.
   One of my best friends is fray Alonso, but I'll give an example of 
how he once lead me down a garden path (I *don't* believe that his 
deceit was intentional).  When I was first trying to do a morphological 
analysis of all the words in his 1571 Nahuatl-Spanish dictionary 
(sometimes referred to as "the second half"), on folio 8r I found his 
famous entry "atlacatl. marinero, o mal hombre."  Since I was still 
relatively naive about vowel length and glottal stops in those P.K.* 
days, I assumed that the component morphemes were "atl" (water) and 
tlacatl (man, person).  Of course, I realized that "water-man" and "mal 
hombre" were like a bridge that didn't quite meet in the middle, but, 
in order to make my hypothesis fit, I had to assume something on the 
order of a social agreement among Nahuatl speakers that those guys who 
traveled up and down the canals, stopping at various places and then 
going back to their own families, had a reputation like the traveling 
salesmen of the nineteenth century -- they misbehaved a lot when they 
were away from home.  Now we know better:

   marinero     a:tl-tla:catl   (water-person)
   mal hombre   ah-tla:catl     (not-person [human])

...and the redness in my face has long since faded away.

   Below are the examples of "mahce:hua" that I have found in Molina 
and the Florentine Codex.

Iztayohmeh ihuan abrazos,


*P.K.  Pre-Karttunen

*mahce:hua ***
  ayehua amo aci tlamacehualiztli.  penitencia no entera. 71m1-17
  cammach mocnopil cammachmomacehual.  de donde ati tanto bien?. 71m2-2
  cotonca intlamacehualiztli =i.  parte dela penitencia. 71m2-6
  cotonqui amo tzonquizqui tlamacehualiztli.  penitencia no entera. 71m1-
  huey tlamacehualiztli.  merecimiento grande. 71m1-15
  icotonca ixeliuhca in tlamacehualiztli.  parte dela penitencia. s. la
    satisfacion, o la contricion  {??printing error: sarisfacion for
    satisfacion}. 71m1-16
  imacehualtini.  merecedor de algo o dichoso. 71m2-7
  macehua =ni.  bailar o dan‡ar; baylar o danzar; danzar o bailar. 71m1-
  macehua =ni=onimaceuh.  bailar, o danzar. 71m2-9
  macehua =nic.  conseguir lo desseado; merecer o alcanzar algo. 55m-3
  macehua =nic=onicmaceuh.  conseguir, o merecer lo desseado. 71m2-9
  macehua =nitla.  merecer; robar a saco mano. 71m1-15
  macehua =nitla=onitlamaceuh.  conseguir, o merecer lo desseado o hazer
    penitencia. 71m2-9
  macehua nenenqui =tla.  romero que va en romeria. 55m-17
  macehual =no.  digno ser de algo. 71m1-8
  macehual =no=onomacehualtic.   <lo mesmo es que nolhuil>. 71m2-12
  macehuale.  digna persona; merecedor de mercedes. 55m-6
  macehualiz necuatequiliztli =tla.  baptismo de penitencia. 71m2-21
  macehualiz tlalhuiliztli =tla.  persuasion o mandato assi. 71m2-21
  macehualiznahuatia =nitla.  mandar hazer penitencia. 71m1-14
  macehualiznahuatia =nitla=onitlamacehualiznahuati.  mandar hazer
    penitencia, o persuadir a hazer obras meritorias. 71m2-21
  macehualiznahuatilli =tla.  mandato tal. 71m2-21
  macehualizpa =tla.  cuaresma. 55m-4
  macehualizpan =tla.  cuaresma; tiempo de penitencia o de merecer. s.
    la quaresma; o quatro temporas &c. 71m1-6
  macehualiztenahuatilli =tla.  mando o mandato de penitencia
    {??printing error: dc for de}. 71m1-14
  macehualiztica =tla.  dichosamente; con penitencia; omereciendo. 55m-
  macehualiztilmatli =tla.  saco o sicilio, o otros vestidos para hazer
    penitencia. 71m2-21
  macehualiztlalhuia =nitetla.  mandar hazer penitencia. 71m1-14
  macehualiztlalhuia =nitetla=onitetlamacehualiztlalhui.  exhortar o
    mandar hazer penitencia. 71m2-21
  macehualiztlalhuiliztli =tla.  mando o mandato de penitencia
    {??printing error: dc for de}. 71m1-14
  macehualiztli.  baile o dan‡a; bayle o danza; danza o baile; s;
    areyto. 71m1-3
  macehualiztli =huei tla.  merecimiento grande. 55m-13
  macehualiztli =tla.  merecimiento; penitencia; o merecimiento; o el
    acto de dar sacomano; robo de saco mano; robo de sacomano; saco#mano
    para robar; sacomano para robar; ympetracion. 71m1-15
  macehualoyan.  corro donde baylan; corro donde bailan. 55m-4
  macehualoyan =tla [scribal error: ??estadal is not in m1, estadalla is
    the word referred to: 71m1].  carrera de cauallo. 71m1-4
  macehualoyan =tla.  estadalla carrera o lugar donde corren los hombres
    o cauallos; estadalla; carrera o lugar; donde corren hombres o
    cauallos. 55m-9
  macehualoyan =tlatla.  estadalla carrera o lugar donde corren los
    hombres o cauallos. 55m-9
  macehualpoloa =ninotla.  desmerecer. 71m1-7
  macehualpoloa =ninotla=oninotlamacehualpolo.  desmerecer. 71m2-21
  macehualpololiztli =netla.  desmerecimiento assi. 71m1-7
  macehualti =no.   <lo mesmo es que nolhuil>; alcanzar lo desseado;
    alcan‡ar lo desseado; dichoso ser o bienaueturado; dichoso ser y
    bienauenturado; digno ser de algo; merecer; ympetrar alcan‡ar;
    ympetrar; alcan‡ar. 71m2-12
  macehualti =no=onomacehualtic.  ser dichoso, o alcanzar lo que dessea.
  macehualtia =nitetla.  dar penitencia. 71m1-6
  macehualtia =nitetla=onitetlamacehualti.  dar a merecer, o dar
    penitencia a otro. 71m2-9
  macehualtic =ono.  dichoso yo, o bienauenturado yo. 71m2-13
  macehualtiliztli.  merecimiento; merecimiento o dicha. 55m-13
  macehualtilo =ni=onimacehualtiloc.  soy hecho digno o merecedor de
    algo. s. sin mi merecimiento. 71m2-9
  macehualtini =i.  merecedor. 55m-13
  macehuanenenqui =tla.  romero que va en romeria. 71m1-19
  macehuani [scribal error: ??printing error: maceuaui for maceuani:
    71m1].  bailador. 71m1-3
  macehuani.  baylador; baylador o danzador; danzante o danzador;
    danzante. 55m-1
  macehuani =tla.  dichoso; ermitano; ermita¤o; penitente; o el que haze
    algunos exercicios para merecer; hermita¤o o beata &c. 71m1-8
  macehuia =ninotla.  merecer. 71m1-15
  macehuia =ninotla=oninotlamacehui.  merecer o alcanzar lo desseado.
  macehuia =nitetla=onitetlamacehui.  hazer penitencia, o merecer para
    otro. 71m2-21
  macehuia in tetlazotlaliztli =nicno.  ganar amor de otro. 55m-10
  macehuilia =nitetla=onitetlamacehuili.  satisfazer o hazer penitencia
    por otro. 71m2-21
  macehuilia =tetla.  el que haze penitencia por otro. 71m2-18
  maceuh =oqui [scribal error: ??bad split??: 55m].  dotado de gracia.
  maceuh in cualli yectli =oqui.  dotado de gracia. 71m1-9
  maceuhca nemitiliztli =tla.  romeria o vida de penitencia y
    merecimiento. 71m2-21
  maceuhcanenemiliztli =tla.  romeria desta manera. 55m-17
  maceuhqui.  baylador; baylador o danzador; danzante o danzador;
    danzante. 55m-1
  maceuhqui =tla.   <lo mesmo es que tlamacehuani>; ermitano; ermita¤o;
    penitente. 71m2-21
  maceuhtli.  ympetrado. 55m-11
  maceuhtli =tla.  conseguida cosa; conseguida cosa assi; despojos; o
    cosa merecida. 55m-3
  nomacehualti =atle.  desdicha acaecer. 55m-5
  tlamacehualoyan =tla [scribal error: ??estadal is not in m1, estadalla
    is the word referred to: 71m1].  carrera de cauallo. 71m1-4
  tlamacehualoyan =tla.  estadalla, carrera o lugar, donde corren
    hombres o cauallos; la carrera; o lugar donde corren hombres; o
    cauallos. 71m1-11
  tlamacehualtia =nic=onitlamacehualti.  dar aflicion al cuerpo, o
    hazerle hazer algunas cosas de abstinencia y penitencia. 71m2-21
  tlapallotitiaque in intlamacehualiz =qui [scribal error: ??printing
    error: mistaken period after quitlilanitiaque; f17r2 has the whole
    entry intact: 71m1].  dexaron exemplo de virtud y penitencia, s, los
    sanctos. 71m1-8
  tlazotlalizmacehua =nite.  merecer el amor de otro. 55m-13
  tlazotlalizmacehua =nite=onitetlazotlalizmaceuh.  alcanzar o merecer
    el amor de otro. 71m2-20
  tlilanitiaque quitlapallotitiaque inin tlamacehualiz =qui.  auer
    dexado exemplo de hazer penitencia los san#ctos passados. 71m1-3
  xeliuhca in tlamacehualiztli =i.  parte dela penitencia. 71m2-8
  cemmaceuh , qui-.  . b.6 f.3
  cenmacehualtia , qui-.  . b.6 f.6
  cenmaceuh , tech-.  ; it favored us. b.6 f.16
  cenmahceuh , tech-.  . b.6 f.1
  etzalmacehua.  they dance the etzalli dance. b.2 f.4
  etzalmacehualiztli.  etzalli dance. b.2 f.4
  etzalmacehualoya.  the dance of maize and beans was danced; there was
    begging of maize and beans. b.2 f.11
  etzalmaceuhque.  . b.7 f.2
  huellamacehua.  . b.4 f.1
  huellamacehua , mo-.  he does his penances well. b.4 f.7
  huellamacehua , tla-.  he performs his penance well. b.4 f.4
  huellamacehua.  he does penance diligently; he performs his penance
    well. b.4 f.6
  huellamacehuaz.  ; he will become very deserving. b.4 f.10
  imahcehualtiz.  . b.4 f.6
  macehhuia , quitla-.  he does a penance for him. b.1 f.1
  macehua.  . b.8 f.3
  macehua , ontla-.  he does penance; she does penances; they perform
    penances. b.4 f.3
  macehua , qui-.  he merits it, he deserves it; she merits it; she
    deserves it; they gain it as a reward. b.6 f.6
  macehua , tic-.  you deserve it, you merit it. b.6 f.9
  macehua , tla-.  ; he does penance; he gains merit; he performs
    penance; he performs a penance; she does penance; they do penance;
    they do penances; they perform penance. b.3 f.4
  macehua , xitla-.  perform penances. b.5 f.1
  macehua.  he dances. b.10 f.2
  macehual , ano-.  it is not my merit. b.6 f.7
  macehual , i-.  his desert; his merit; his lot; his reward. b.4 f.6
  macehual , in-.  ; their merit; their desert. b.4 f.10
  macehual , mo-.  your desert; your merit. b.5 f.1
  macehual , no-.  my desert; my merit. b.1 f.5
  macehual , oi-.  his merit. b.6 f.19
  macehual , te-.  one's reward. b.5 f.2
  macehual , ti-.  you are the desert, you are the merit. b.6 f.15
  macehual , tito-.  you are our merit. b.6 f.14
  macehual , to-.  our desert; our merit. b.1 f.5
  macehual yez , mo-.  it will be your merit. b.9 f.3
  macehuale.  ; one who has merit; a deserving person. b.4 f.6
  macehualeque.  those who have merit. b.6 f.4
  macehualiz , i-.  his dance. b.4 f.3
  macehualiz , intla-.  their penance; their penitence. b.3 f.1
  macehualizcali , tla-.  house of penance. b.3 f.3
  macehualiztica , itla-.  by his penance, by means of his penance. b.4
  macehualiztica , tla-.  by doing penance. b.6 f.9
  macehualiztica.  with penance, by means of penance. b.4 f.5
  macehualiztlalhuiloya , te-.  a dance was arranged. b.4 f.3
  macehualiztli , tla-.  penance; dance; performance of penance. b.3
  macehualiztli.  dance. b.8 f.3
  macehuallatquitl.  properties which are used in the dance. b.8 f.3
  macehualli.  desert, merit. b.6 f.5
  macehualo , tla-.  people do penance; people perform penance. b.2 f.3
  macehualo.  it is received as merit; it is merited; there is dancing;
    there is a procession. b.6 f.4
  macehualoc.  it was merited. b.12 f.5
  macehualoya , tla-.  there was performing of penance. b.2 f.12
  macehualoyan , tla-.  place of penitence. b.6 f.16
  macehualti , amo-.  . b.10 f.12
  macehualti , i-.  . b.4 f.9
  macehualti , no-.  I deserve, I merit. b.6 f.4
  macehualti , oqui-.  . b.5 f.1
  macehualti , ti-.  ; we merit; we achieve our merit; you gain merit.
    b.6 f.5
  macehualtia , mitz-.  . b.6 f.5
  macehualtia , motla-.  . b.3 f.4
  macehualtia , qui-.  ; he gives it to him as his merit. b.5 f.1
  macehualtia , quite-.  ; he gives it to people as merit. b.6 f.7
  macehualtia , quitla-.  . b.6 f.10
  macehualtia , tetla-.  . b.6 f.7
  macehualtiaya , quite-.  he gave it to people as their merit, as their
    lot; it awarded it to someone. b.1 f.2
  macehualtic , omo-.  . b.6 f.14
  macehualtic , on-.  . b.8 f.5
  macehualtic , oti-.  you gained your merit. b.6 f.9
  macehualtic , oto-.  . b.6 f.16
  macehualtilia , amechmo-.  he [H.] makes it your [pl.] birthright.
    b.10 f.12
  macehualtiliztli , tetla-.  imposed penance. b.3 f.4
  macehualtiz , amo-.  . b.6 f.7
  macehualtiz , i-.  . b.4 f.10
  macehualtiz , qui-.  it will award him. b.5 f.1
  macehualtiz , tito-.  we will deserve, we will merit. b.6 f.15
  macehualtiz , to-.  ; it will be our reward; we shall merit it; we
    will merit; we shall merit; we shall deserve. b.6 f.5
  macehualtiz.  he will merit. b.11 f.3
  macehualtiznequi , to-.  we want to merit; we want to deserve. b.6
  macehuani , tla-.  one who performs penances; one who does penance.
    b.4 f.1
  macehuato , ontla-.  they went to do penance. b.5 f.1
  macehuato , ooanqui-.  you [pl.] went to merit it. b.9 f.1
  macehuato , titla-.  . b.6 f.17
  macehuaya.  . b.9 f.7
  macehuaya , i-.  his dance. b.8 f.2
  macehuaya , intla-.  at the time of their penance. b.2 f.11
  macehuaya , ontla-.  they did penance. b.2 f.11
  macehuaya , qui-.  he merited it; they deserved it. b.4 f.3
  macehuaya , tla-.  he performed penances; he did penances; he
    performed penance; she performed penances; she did penance; they
    performed penance; they performed penances; they did penance. b.1
  macehuaya.  they danced; they performed penances. b.8 f.2
  macehuayan , itla-.  his place of doing penance. b.2 f.11
  macehuaz , qui-.  ; he will merit it. b.6 f.1
  macehuaz , ti-.  . b.6 f.10
  macehuaz , titla-.  you will do penance. b.1 f.1
  macehuaz , tla-.  he will perform penance; he will dance. b.2 f.14
  macehuaz.  he will dance. b.8 f.2
  macehui , oquimo-.  he merited it. b.2 f.1
  macehui , oticmo-.  you [H.] merited it; you merited it. b.5 f.1
  macehui , quimo-.  (may) he deserve it, he merit it. b.6 f.2
  macehuia , quimo-.  ; he merits it; she merits it. b.6 f.7
  macehuiac , quimo-.  she merited it. b.4 f.3
  macehuiaya , motla-.  they gained his favor. b.12 f.4
  macehuiaya , quimo-.  he merited it; they merited it; . b.4 f.1
  macehuili , oticmo-.  you rewarded him. b.6 f.1
  macehuitihui , quin-.  . b.7 f.2
  macehuitzinoa , amechmo-.  he [H.] gives you [pl.] merit. b.6 f.16
  macehuiz , conmo-.  he will gain it as his merit. b.6 f.2
  macehuizque , ticto-.  we shall merit it. b.6 f.16
  maceuh , mo-.  it was merited. b.12 f.5
  maceuh , nic-.  I merited it. b.2 f.14
  maceuh , on-.  he danced. b.1 f.2
  maceuh , ontla-.  he performed penance. b.8 f.4
  maceuh , otic-.  you merited it. b.1 f.5
  maceuh , otla-.  he did penance. b.1 f.1
  maceuh , otontla-.  you did penance. b.6 f.14
  maceuh , qui-.  he deserved it. b.11 f.6
  maceuh , tla-.  . b.7 f.1
  maceuh , tontla-.  you did penance. b.6 f.14
  maceuhcahuan , itla-.  its devout ones. b.8 f.5
  maceuhque , otic-.  we merited it. b.9 f.1
  maceuhque , otla-.  they performed penances. b.7 f.1
  maceuhque , tla-.  ; devout people; people who do penance; penitents;
    they performed penance; they deserved. b.2 f.14
  maceuhqui , tla-.  offering priest; penitent. b.2 f.11
  maceuhqui.  dancer. b.6 f.10
  maceuhtinenca , ontla-.  they had gone along performing penances. b.7
  maceuhtiya , hualla-.  they go performing penances. b.9 f.3
  maceuhtoz , titla-.  you will be doing penance. b.6 f.14
  mahcehua , qui-.  he achieves it; he gains it as his desert. b.8 f.5
  mahcehua , tla-.  they perform penance. b.4 f.7
  mahcehual , i-.  her desert, her merit; his birthright; his desert;
    his lot; his merit; his reward. b.4 f.3
  mahcehual , in-.  their merit. b.4 f.4
  mahcehual , mo-.  ; your desert; your merit; your reward. b.6 f.6
  mahcehual , te-.  someone's reward. b.4 f.4
  mahcehual , to-.  our reward. b.4 f.7
  mahcehualcuicanime.  singer-dancers. b.8 f.3
  mahcehuale.  ; one who deserves; one who has merit; person of merit.
    b.4 f.1
  mahcehualiztli.  act of dancing; dancing. b.4 f.3
  mahcehuallatqui , i-.  his dancing array. b.4 f.3
  mahcehuallatquitl.  dance gear; property which used in dance. b.9 f.7
  mahcehualle.  one who has merit. b.6 f.1
  mahcehualli.  ; desert; merit; gift; recompense. b.4 f.7
  mahcehualmacaya , quitla-.  . b.8 f.5
  mahcehualo.  ; there is dancing. b.4 f.3
  mahcehualtic , oto-.  . b.5 f.1
  mahcehualtitiuh , i-.  . b.4 f.4
  mahcehualtiz , i-.  it will be his reward. b.4 f.9
  mahcehualtiz , mitz-.  he will give it to you as your merit. b.4 f.7
  mahcehuaya , qui-.  ; they merited it. b.4 f.10
  mahcehuaz.  he will dance. b.8 f.3
  mahcehui , oquimo-.  . b.4 f.7
  mahcehuiaya , quimo-.  . b.4 f.1
  mahceuh , ontla-.  he merited. b.8 f.5
  mahceuh , otla-.  he performed the penances. b.4 f.6
  mamacehua , toco[n]-.  you deserve it. b.6 f.10
  mamacehua.  they dance repeatedly. b.2 f.4
  mamacehuaya.  they danced repeatedly. b.2 f.4
  mamahcehua.  he dances continuously. b.10 f.2
  tlalmacehuaco.  . b.8 f.1
  tlalmacehualoco.  there is granting of land. b.10 f.12
  tlalmacehuaquihui.  they come to subjugate the land. b.8 f.1
  tlalmaceuhque.  . b.10 f.11
  tlamacehualiztica , in-.  by their penance. b.4 f.8
  tlamacehuayan , in-.  their place of doing penance. b.5 f.1

> For Nahuatl I have found in Molina:
> Bailar o dancar nin, itotia.  ni, maceua
> Bailador, netotiani, maceuani
> baile o danca, netotiliztli, maceualiztli
> In Karttunen:
> ihto:tia: to dance; to get someone to dance
> I did not find an entry for macehua
> Based on Frances' analysis, should  Molina's maceua  (macehua)  be
> derived/related  from/to ma:ce:hualli: subject, commoner, indigenous
> person  or mahce:hualli: merit recompense fortune?
> In the book "Victors and Vanquished, edited by Stuart B. Schwartz, a
> section of Francisco Lopez de Gomara's Istoria de la Conquista de
> Mexico says  "...The performed the dance called macehualixtli, which
> means "reward through work" (from macehualli, a farmer)."
> (page 160)
> I am very much interested in what (if any) were the differences
> between the dances known as netotiliztli/mihtotiliztli, and those
> called maceualiztli.
> My theory is that one is a more social and popular type of dance,
> maceualiztli, (which also had its sacred aspects) and the other
> netotiliztli/mihtotiliztli is much more focused on religious state
> sponsored dance rituals for the gods.
> Anyone have an idea where I can do further research on this question?
> Miyec Tlazcamati!
> Mario
> www.mexicayotl.org
> _______________________________________________
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