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Kevin Stuart kevin.stuart at GMAIL.COM
Thu Jan 12 14:09:54 UTC 2012


Hu Qianma: Wangjiagou Pumi Collection

The World Oral Literature Project is pleased to host the collection of Hu
Qianma. Details of the full collection can be browsed on DSpace at Cambridge by
clicking  <> here.

This collection contains forty-five audio files including numerous
interviews and various genres of traditional songs recorded by Hu Qianma in
the Pumi village of Wangjiagou, Jinmian Township, Ninglang County, Lijiang
City, Yunnan Province, PR China.

Hu Qianma recorded this collection between February 2008 - February 2011

Collection Details:

Collection: Hu Qianma: Wangjiagou Pumi Collection
Collector: Hu Qianma
Date(s): 2008-2011
Language(s): Pumi, Premi

1. Drinking Song 1, 'Er Zhi Tian Gei'
This song welcomes guests by saying, "Honourable relatives and friends,
please come to a Pumi home. We have delicious liquor and melodious songs
awaiting you. Please come and sit beside the stove, sing songs and drink
liquor with us." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

2. Folk Song 1, 'Elders Advise Young People'
This song is sung to advise young people and says, "Elders grow weaker day
by day while young people grow stronger. During youth you can do many things
but in old age, you can't do anything, even if you are motivated. Everyone
should therefore make the most of life when they are young." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

3. Interview 1, 'The History of the Yema Clan'
Yema is a clan in Wangjiagou Village. This recording discusses where the
clan came from and what their daily life was like. It also discusses how
many generations have lived in the village, and who was the first person who
came to the village from the clan? 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

4. Interview 2, 'The History of the Baxi Clan'
The Baxi Clan first lived in Mianmian and moved to Wangjiagou Village four
generations ago. The Baxi Clan came from a place where crows were white and
had no feathers. Baxi got its name because the founder of the clan hid in
the forest when he had to work in the fields. Baxi has had four generations
since coming to Wangjiagou. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

5. Interview 3, 'The History of the Sengti Clan' 
The speaker states that the founder of the Sengti Clan in Wangjiagou Village
was called Guadada. He came as a groom to the village and was also a hangui,
a knowledgeable ritual specialist. There have been four generations since he
came to the village. The clan has become poorer and poorer.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

6. Interview 4, 'The Bidai Clan and the History of Yi, Pumi and Han People'
Bidai is a clan in Wangjiagou Village. Guozui was the founder of the clan in
Wangjiagou Village. He was a famous hard-worker, who came to the village as
a groom and lived with the Agai Clan. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

7. Interview 5, 'A Story about Pumi and Yi'
The relationship between Yi and Pumi is described. The speaker narrates a
story starting that the Pumi were once more powerful than the Yi, who worked
for the Pumi. The story also describes how the Yi came to live where they do
today, on mountain tops. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

8. Interview 6, 'The Story of the Agai Clan'
The first person of the Agai Clan who came to Wangjiagou was called
Rongbutie. Since he came to Wangjiagou Village, his clan line has
flourished, and become more prosperous. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

9. Interview 7, 'Pumi Origins'
The origins of the Pumi people are explained. Pumi were called Xifan before,
because Pumi came from where the sun set (the west, xi). There were nine
generations of grandfathers, and seven generations of grandmothers. The
seventh grandmother could marry with the ninth grandfather, but the ninth
grandfather couldn't marry with the seventh grandmothers. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

10. Interview 8, 'The History of the Dala Clan'
The history of the Dala Clan in Wangjiagou Village is described. Four
generations have passed since this clan came to the village. The first
person who came to the village lived in a house which was offered to him by
the Bidai Clan.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

11. Interview 9, 'The Story of the Xiong Bajiajia'
Xiongbajiajia's last name is Xiong. He followed Mutianwang, who was a leader
at that time. Xiong Bajiajia became a bird after he died, and sent a message
to people. The message said, "Tell my family I'II return home soon, and
bring gifts for my parents, brothers, and sisters." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

12. Interview 10, 'Mountain God Sacrifice and Soul-calling Rituals'
This file describes how every family has a holy tree used for sacrifices to
the local mountain god. When a family member is ill, they take a bowl of
goat's milk, and call back the patient's soul from under the tree. The
mountain god helps the family find the patient's soul. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

13. Interview 11, 'Rongsao (the ritual after the bride is taken out from her
Rongsao is a very important part of local marriage processes. It is held not
only in bride's home but also in the groom's home. In the bride's home, this
ritual is held after seeing the bride off, while in groom's home it is held
after the wedding ceremony. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

14. Interview 12, 'The Spring Festival and the Deities of Spring'
The New Year for different animals and the spring deity are described. A
ritual called Ling qiewo is held during the New Year. The ritual takes place
on one of two days during the New Year period, the "Goat New Year" or "Cow
New Year". These days are chosen according to the zodiac. A legend says that
there were nine generations of male spring deities and seven generations of
female spring deities. The water which Pumi people drink is offered by the
spring deities. The deities give plants and all human beings life. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

15. Love Song 1, 'Madami (My Love for You)'
This song says, "I bless you from my immaculate heart. Different people
respond differently at various times, but my feelings for you won't change.
I'll always think about you." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

16. Religious Song 1, 'Friends from Far Away'
This song is sung during the New Year period and says, "We relatives and
friends will all gather beside the stove. The youths will sit beside the
stove and the elders will teach them Pumi customs and culture. May the
youths maintain these for prosperity." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

17. Religious Song 2, 'Blessings'
This song is usually sung during such Pumi festivals as New Year, which is
held from the 7th to the 9th of day of the twelfth lunar month. The meaning
of this song is that history accumulates day by day, month by month, and
year by year. To face death is our fate. Elders need not worry about when
they are going to die, but should try to enjoy themselves while they are
alive. Youths should treat time as something precious. They have much time
to do what they need. They should be happy and never complain.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

18. Religious Song 3, 'Nangbushuoluo (Cooking Pot)'
This song may be sung whenever Pumi gather and celebrate, and says, "Pumi
people are never without their copper pots. With such pots, Pumi people can
cook food, boil water, and so on. Pots always help people. Thank you, pot,
for your help!" 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

19. Religious Song 4, 'Manigeibu'
This song is typically sung during the New Year period celebrations. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

20. Religious Song 5, 'Zedian (Praising White Incense)'
This song is sung during Pumi rituals and praises the incense burned during
such rituals. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

21. Ritual 1, 'Ghost Exorcism Ritual'
This file describes how the ghost exorcism ritual is usually held after the
New Year, because during the New Year, ghosts come to the home to look for
food. The ghosts include the family's ancestors and other malicious ghost.
The purpose of this ritual is to drive away the bad ghosts who want to harm
the family members and the family's livestock. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

22. Ritual 2, 'Bride-Welcoming Ritual'
This ritual takes place in the groom's home in order to welcome the bride.
The bride is told, "From now on, you're a member of this family. You should
respect your husband's parents like your own parents, and get along with
your husband's brothers and sisters. We will also treat you as our own
daughter, and your husband will treat you kindly." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

23. Ritual 3, 'Making Offering to the Groom's Ancestors'
The groom's ancestors are beseeched to protect the bride and groom. In this
ritual, the bride and groom and their assistants firstly bow before a site
in the house dedicated to the ancestor. Secondly, bow respectfully to the
groom's parents. They are then congratulated for their marriage. Next is
dancing and singing beside the Zongbala. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

24. Song 1, 'An Entertaining Dancing Song' 
The lyrics say: we sister and brothers can not often be together. However,
luckily, we are all together tonight. It's my pleasure to be a volunteer to
sing songs for you, my brothers and sisters. Why don't you sing a song? If
you sing a song, tonight will be nice and our relationship will deepen. A
small cloud passes over our head slowly. We should rest for a while, and
chat about our life. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

25. Song 2, 'An Engagement Song'
Usually, engagement rituals are held in the bride's home. The groom's side
sends three people who are good at communicating and who sing songs as
representatives to the bride's home. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

26. Song 3, 'Dongzi dongdai dong Song'
This song describes the Dongzi dongdai dongsong, the holy materials used in
ancestor and deity worship rituals. They include Bongba, Gongyong, Zongbala,
Zengdian bukua, and Zhishong gailie. "Bongba" is a bottle in which holy
water is put. "Gongyong" is a butter lamp. "Zongbala" is a carved square
stone where food, liquor and tea are offered daily to ancestors and deities.
"Zengdian bukua" is a bowl for burning the incense. "Zhishong gailie" is a
cup for pouring alchol or tea during offering rituals. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

27. Song 4, 'The Love Song, Madami'
This love song says: Falling in love with you was very easy, but getting
along with you is difficult. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

28. Song 5, 'The Song of Whole Life'
This song describes life from birth until death. It advises young people to
value time in case, as elders, they will feel regret for wasting time.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

29. Song 6, 'The Four Seasons'
This song describes how the four seasons are like human life, from
childhood, teenage, mid-age, and old age. The four seasons not only show the
annual cycle, but also the world's life cycle: primal, developing,
developed, and ebbing away. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

30. Song 7, 'A Seeing off Song'
This song says, please be careful on your way. When you leave, I sincerely
bless you. When you come back, I'll restrain the dog to allow you to enter
my home. Please don't forget the people who love you. We bless and support
you constantly. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

31. Song 8, 'A Song for the Bride'
This song instructs the bride thus: You should follow and respect your
husband. You have the most important role to play in the family. You should
follow our culture to obey elders, and don't always look up at the sky
instead of working hard. You also should be knowledgeable and teach your
children well. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

32. Song 9, 'A Song for Ancestors'
This song praises ancestors, saying: "We are the descendants our ancestors,
They gave us life and taught us how to produce food for ourselves. Wherever
we are, we should make offerings to our ancestors." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

33. Song 10, 'Songs of History'
This song states that history demonstrates the truth that all things are
impermanent. Thus, we should be satisfied with our life and not be greedy
for a better life. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

34. Song 11, 'A Proposal Song'
The singer says, I welcome you to my home to propose to the girl. I'II
prevent the dog from biting you. I don't want to let my daughter go to a far
away place, I want to give my daughter to you. I always thought about you
coming to propose. You are a cloud, and I am a star. My daughter and your
son should marry.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

35. Song 12, 'A Song for Mother'
This song is about missing one's mother and says, "My mother is so great
that I can't prevent myself from thinking about her. Although there are so
many things distracting me, I can't forget my mother. I should take care of
her. She is the most important person in my life." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

36. Song 13, 'Love Songs between Women and Men'
Women ask questions to the men, and the men answer the questions. If the men
can't answer the questions, the men lose face, and the women laugh at them. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

37. Song 14, 'The String Dance Song'
String dance is a traditional dance in Pumi communities. The steps usually
follow a rhythm of the flute. Songs are sung antiphonally during the dance
between women and men, or between guests and hosts. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

38. Song 15, 'Nanbu Shuo Luo' 
The song describes the importance of "Nanbu Shuo Luo". This translates
directly as "ancestor pot". All Pumi property, customs and lifestyles are
said to be contained in this symbolic pot for future generations' benefit.
The meaning of this symbolic pot is unclear for most Pumi people, including
collector of the song. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

39. Speech 1, 'A Speech for Seeing off the Bride'
This speech is addressed to the bride-to-be and says; "From today on, you
should always think about your husband and be a kind wife. You should know
how to conduct yourself in society. Be nice to your husband's family
members, and get along with your new neighbours." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

40. Story 1, 'The Story of Four Mountains and Four Brothers'
This narrative states that four brothers divided from four mountains, and
received different family names. After they divided they met many
difficulties but at last obtained a peaceful life. The four mountains are
called: Woniliedi, Rinidacuo, Guemisengzhu, and Beriwodi. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

41. Story 2, 'The Story of Two Hangui and A Witch'
This story describes how two hangui studied with a knowledgeable teacher.
One of them worked very hard, and one of them didn't. After five years, the
teacher tested them. One of them passed, but the one who didn't work hard
didn't pass the exam. So, only one of them graduated, and he began his
journey. He came to a village, and went to a household to get something to
eat. Then the host of the household told him that all the villagers were
killed by witches and they were the only household left. Then the hangui
helped this family kill all the witches except the biggest. The biggest one
only lost one of her feet and then escaped. The hangui then began his
journey again. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

42. Story 3, 'The Story of Three Brothers'
Three brothers lived together. The oldest son and second-oldest son were
cruel and lazy. They never worked in the fields while the youngest one
worked very hard. The gods couldn't bear this, and so sent a flood to punish
the two brothers. Only the youngest one survived. 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

43. Story 4, 'The Story of Chisengjiebu'
Chisengjiebu was half ghost and half water deity. He punished bad and unkind
people and treated kind and hard-working people generously.
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

44. Wedding Song 1, 'Nibayalilinong (Leading to a New Life)'
This wedding says, "Parents, please don't say any inauspicious words during
the wedding. Let us bless our children so they can have a good, new life." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]

45. Wedding Song 2, 'Rongjianguxing (Sitting in Brother's Home)'
A male and a female sing this song antiphonally during weddings. The song
says, "We are all in my brother's home chanting prayers and burning incense.
Only burning incense and chanting prayers can bring good fortune to this
family. If the smoke circles into the sky to the left, the mountain deity
will receive it. If the smoke circles into the sky to the right, the gods
and goddesses will receive it. Wherever you are, don't forget to chant
prayers! Prayers will give you good luck." 
 <> [Archive]
<> [Listen to audio]


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