Proto-Oceanic for 'again' or 'also'?

Frank Lichtenberk (ARTS DALSL) f.lichtenberk at AUCKLAND.AC.NZ
Thu Mar 24 02:23:05 UTC 2011

Hello everybody,

There are recurrent links between the meanings ‘return’ on the one hand and ‘again’ and ‘also’ (and some others) on the other in Oceanic. I discussed  that in my paper Semantic change and heterosemy in grammaticalization (Language 67 (1991)), and Claire Moyse-Faurie discussed it, in much more detail, in her keynote paper at COOL8. And so, as also pointed out by Malcolm and Paul, it might pay to look for verbs ‘return’ when looking for cognates of ‘again’ and ‘also’.

Frank Lichtenberk

From: an-lang-bounces at [mailto:an-lang-bounces at] On Behalf Of Paul Geraghty
Sent: Thursday, 24 March 2011 2:39 p.m.
To: 'C Wegener'; an-lang at
Subject: Re: [An-lang] Proto-Oceanic for 'again' or 'also'?

Claudia, It’s possible Gela ghoi is cognate with Proto Polynesian *koi ‘still, while’ – also pre-verbal – but if so, meaning unclear. My best bet would be *voki, which is reconstructable at Proto Eastern Oceanic and no doubt earlier meaning ‘return’, and has become a post-verbal for ‘again’ in a number of Eastern Fijian and Polynesian languages. Paul Geraghty

From: an-lang-bounces at [mailto:an-lang-bounces at] On Behalf Of C Wegener
Sent: Wednesday, March 23, 2011 11:07 PM
To: an-lang at
Subject: [An-lang] Proto-Oceanic for 'again' or 'also'?

Dear all,

I've been trying to find out if there is any reconstruction for Proto-Oceanic (or maybe Proto-Southeast-Solomonic) for a form meaning 'again' or 'also', but so far haven't been successful.

The reason why I am interested in this is that there are two lexemes with this meaning found in Gela and Bughotu (both Southeast Solomonic, spoken in the central Solomon Islands), ghua (following a verb or a noun/NP) and ghoi (positioned between a subject/TAM marker at the beginning of a verb complex and a verb). Is any evidence for either of these to be 'proper' Oceanic?

I'd be grateful for any information or references!

Thanks in advance,
Claudia Wegener

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